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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the factors influencing carburization to improve wear resistance of steel, such as operating temperature, cost, production volume, types of wear, and design criteria. It details the types of wear, namely abrasive wear and adhesive wear. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...Heat treatment for carburized steels Table 2 Heat treatment for carburized steels SAE No. (a) Alloy content Approximate transformation temperatures Preferred treatments (See Fig. 2 ) Quenching medium Retention of austenite Case Ac 1 Core Ac 3 (b) °C °F °C °F 1015...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Fig. 2 Schematic process procedure Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of a plasma carburizing furnace. Courtesy of IPSEN International Fig. 6 Surface reactions during plasma carburizing. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 7 Carbon transfer as a function of current density. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Common carburizing steels Table 3 Common carburizing steels AISI grade Relative cost Nominal composition, wt% Comments C Mn Ni Cr Mo 1020 Very Low 0.2 0.45 … … … Plain carbon steel. Low core hardenability 4023 Low 0.23 0.80 … … 0.25 Low-hardenability grade...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Comparison of treatment times for low-pressure carburizing and atmospheric gas carburizing Table 1 Comparison of treatment times for low-pressure carburizing and atmospheric gas carburizing Application Material Treatment temperature Case-hardening depth Treatment time (a) , h °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the thermodynamics and kinetics of gas carburizing reactions, and details the mass transfer mechanism during gas carburizing. It discusses the various considerations involved in carburizing process planning, and reviews successful operation of the gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Typical applications of liquid carburizing in cyanide baths Table 6 Typical applications of liquid carburizing in cyanide baths Part Weight Steel Depth of case Temperature Time, h Quench Subsequent treatment Hardness, HRC kg lb mm in. °C °F Carbon steel Adapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Abstract Abstract Pack carburizing is a process in which carbon monoxide derived from a solid compound decomposes at the metal surface into nascent carbon and carbon dioxide. In addition to discussing the pros and cons of pack carburizing, this article provides information on the carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Fig. 1 Carbon gradient in a 25 mm (1 in.) diam. test bar of 8620 steel after gas carburization at 925 °C (1700 °F). Source: Ref 12 Fig. 2 Microhardness profile of 16 mm (0.63 in.) test bar of 8620 steel after gas carburization at 925 °C (1700 °F). Source: Ref 12 Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...Abstract Abstract Bending fatigue of carburized steel components is a result of cyclic mechanical loading. This article reviews the alloying and processing factors that influence the microstructures and bending fatigue performance of carburized steels. These include austenitic grain size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... 0.04 40.60 1.600 1.950 0.077 17 0.500 0.020 1.00 0.04 39.60 1.560 2.450 0.097 18 0.500 0.020 1.00 0.04 38.60 1.521 2.950 0.116 19 0.500 0.020 1.00 0.04 37.60 1.481 3.450 0.136 Minimum carburizing time required to through carburize 0.13 mm (0.005 in.) thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...Abstract Abstract Low-temperature carburization hardens the surface of austenitic stainless steels through the diffusion of interstitial carbon without the formation of carbides. This article provides an overview on austenitic stainless steels and low-temperature carburization. It reviews...
Book Chapter

By J.Y. Shi
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... carburization process curves of 35Cr3SiMnMoV steel. (b) Conventional carburization process curves of 20CrMnMo, 20Cr2Ni4 steel. C p , carbon potential. PAG, polyalkylene glycol Fig. 3 Isothermal section drawing of Fe-Cr-C at 850 °C (1560 °F) Fig. 4 Microhardness distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Ni 0.4 0.7 Mo 0.15 0.25 Industrial applications of carburized gears and appropriate materials choice Table 1 Industrial applications of carburized gears and appropriate materials choice Typical gear materials Gear design type Industrial applications U.S. grades...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... on the stress development during cooling. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 3 Specific volume of different microstructures. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the carbon, martensite start temperature, and temperature profile during quenching of a carburized sample Fig. 5 Diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for a bed of uniform-sized particles. μ mf , minimum fluidization velocity. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 11 Comparison of hardness profiles obtained by fluidized-bed and conventional gas carburizing. SAE 8620 steel, rehardened from 820 °C (1510 °F). Source: Ref 3 Fig. 9 Relationship between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of two parts Table 5 Recommended tool steels for backward extrusion of two parts Metal to be extruded Total quantity of parts to be extruded (a) 5000 50,000 Punch material Aluminum alloys A2 A2, D2 Carbon steel, up to 0.40% C A2 D2, M2 (b) Carburizing grades of alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... for layered coatings; tailored coating composition Thin coatings; line of sight; abrupt interface (unless ion-beam assisted) Thermochemical conversion Nitriding, carburizing, boriding Gradual interface, conversion of substrate; thick surface modification zones Potential for hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005951
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...Case-hardening processes and their characteristics Table 1 Case-hardening processes and their characteristics Process Characteristics Carburizing Hard, highly wear-resistant surface (medium case depths); excellent capacity for contact load; good bending fatigue strength; good...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... surface hardening and diffusion coatings such as carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding. The article also tabulates typical characteristics of carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding diffusion treatments. carbonitriding carburizing chemical vapor deposition diffusion coatings electro...