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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Cast stainless steels are usually specified on the basis of composition by using the alloy designation system established by the Alloy Casting Institute. This article discusses the corrosion behavior of heat-resistant alloys due to oxidation, sulfidation, and carburization. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The process of case hardening of steel includes three consecutive steps of heat treatment: heating; the thermochemical process with the enrichment of the surface area during the carburizing or carbonitriding stage with carbon and nitrogen; and the subsequent quenching process for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... decarburizing atmosphere; nitrocarburizing and nitriding atmosphere; carburizing and carbonitriding atmosphere; and chemical vapor deposition atmosphere. External resistance heating, external combustion heating, internal resistance heating, direct resistance heating, submerged combustion heating, and internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... observed during and after heat treating of quenched and tempered steels. It describes phase transformations of steels during heating, cooling of steel with and without metallurgical transformation, and the formation of high-temperature transformation products on the surface of a carburized part. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... control and supply atmosphere control. The two basic types of atmospheric supply systems are generated atmospheres and nitrogen-base atmospheres. The article provides a brief overview of the gas reactions associated with oxidation and carbon control to ensure either carburization, or to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... and devices for measuring thermal and electrical conductivity. The article also describes the applications of the vacuum heat treating process, namely, vacuum nitriding and vacuum carburizing. Finally, it reviews the heat treating process of tool steels, stainless steels, Inconel 718, and titanium and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... include standard bearing steels, such as high-carbon bearing steels and carburizing bearing steels; and special-purpose bearing steels, such as high-temperature service bearing steels and corrosion-resistant bearing steels. chemical composition rolling-element bearings special-purpose bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... implantation and laser surface processing. Surface hardening techniques, namely, nitriding, carburizing, boriding, and flame hardening, performed to improve the resistance of stainless steel alloys are also reviewed. acid cleaning acid descaling alkaline cleaning boriding buffing carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (electrical steels). This article provides a detailed discussion on the various surface treatments, including cleaning, nitriding, carburizing, coating, and plating, performed on specialty steels. carburizing case hardening cleaning coating corrosion resistance deburring electrical steels ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... easily and consistently reproduced from one test to another. These include the Jominy end-quench test, the carburized hardenability test, and the surface-area-center hardenability test. This article discusses the effects of varying carbon content as well as the influence of different alloying elements on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., carbon and hardness gradients, and process procedures of different types of case hardening methods: carburizing (gas, pack, liquid, vacuum, and plasma), nitriding (gas, liquid, plasma), carbonitriding, cyaniding and ferritic nitrocarburizing. An accurate and repeatable method of measuring case depth is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... atmosphere) involved in the operation. The medium or environment used for heat treating varies from process to process. Typical environments are air, combustion atmospheres, carburizing and nitriding atmospheres, and molten salts. The environment can often be contaminated by impurities, which can greatly...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the ASM Handbook. SALT BATHS are used in a wide variety of commercial heat treating operations, including cyaniding, liquid carburizing, liquid nitriding, austempering, martempering, and tempering applications. Salt bath equipment is well adapted to heat treatment of tool steels, as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... endothermic Clean hardening 45.1 19.6 0.4 34.6 0.3 302 Rich endothermic Gas carburizing 39.8 20.7 … 38.7 0.8 402 Charcoal Carburizing 64.1 34.7 … 1.2 … 501 Lean exothermic-endothermic Clean hardening 63.0 17.0 … 20.0 … 502 Rich exothermic-endothermic Gas carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... referred to as carburization . While this section is devoted to decarburization behavior, such behavior is frequently a complication of improper carburization practice, and there is some overlap of the two reaction phenomena. The most important driving force for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...) , μm Δ m (0) , μm/mm Δ m (2) , μm/mm Distributions of alloying elements and microstructure D (a) : carburizing depth –0.43 0.41 0.15 –0.23 … … (–0.05) A (b) : hardenability –0.47 0.13 –0.19 –0.96 (–1.0) … C (b) : preheat treatment … 0.29 0.11 0.14 (–0.9) … E (a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...): 20 CO, 40 H 2 , 40 N 2 , 0.1 to 0.5 CO 2 , 0.2 to 1.2 H 2 O, 0.2 to 0.8 CH 4 . In gas carburizing, a common commercial practice is to use an endothermic gas as a carrier and to enrich it with natural or propane gas additions. WHEN FABRICATED STEEL PARTS are heated in a carbonaceous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... 0.05 0.05 3.0 … 224 Class 202 plus steam with catalyst to convert carbon monoxide Annealing, brazing 89.9 0.05 0.05 10.0 … 301 Lean endothermic Clean hardening 45.1 19.6 0.4 34.6 0.3 302 Rich endothermic Gas carburizing 39.8 20.7 … 38.7 0.8 323 Gas-air-steam mixture...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...% offset yield strength Elongation in 25 mm (1 in.), % Reduction of area, % Room-temperature Charpy V-notch impact energy Core hardness, HV30 Fatigue endurance limit Ratio of fatigue endurance to tensile strength MPa ksi MPa ksi J ft·lbf MPa ksi Blank carburized Upset 0.24 230...