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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... decarburizing atmosphere; nitrocarburizing and nitriding atmosphere; carburizing and carbonitriding atmosphere; and chemical vapor deposition atmosphere. External resistance heating, external combustion heating, internal resistance heating, direct resistance heating, submerged combustion heating, and internal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., carbon and hardness gradients, and process procedures of different types of case hardening methods: carburizing (gas, pack, liquid, vacuum, and plasma), nitriding (gas, liquid, plasma), carbonitriding, cyaniding and ferritic nitrocarburizing. An accurate and repeatable method of measuring case depth is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The process of case hardening of steel includes three consecutive steps of heat treatment: heating; the thermochemical process with the enrichment of the surface area during the carburizing or carbonitriding stage with carbon and nitrogen; and the subsequent quenching process for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of typical CVD coating materials for wear and corrosion resistance. Coatings for the cutting tool industry utilize CVD processes, particularly TiC coatings for cemented tungsten carbide tools and TiN and carbonitride coatings for high-speed tool steels and cemented carbide tools. Nearly all coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... suitable for most heat-treating applications and have been successfully adopted for the following heat-treating processes: Annealing Carburizing Carbide solution treating Neutral hardening Carbonitriding Ferritic nitrocarburizing Atmospheres have included: Endothermic (both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 3.0 33 9.5 High lubricity; stable and inert Titanium carbonitride 24.5–29.4 3.5–4.3 20–30 8 Stable lubricant Chromium carbide 22.1 3.2 11 10 Resists oxidation to 900 °C (1650 °F) Silicon carbide 27.4 4.0 125 3.9 High conductivity, shock resistant Titanium diboride 33.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Recrystallization is a potent mechanism for grain refinement, and so it is ironic that the other potent mechanism involves stopping the recrystallization of austenite. This can be accomplished by adding niobium, which can precipitate into fine carbides/carbonitrides during hot deformation. These precipitates can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... binder. As defined in the literature of the cutting tool industry, the ceramic phase includes the carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides of titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, niobium, vanadium, aluminum, and their solid solutions. The metallic binder phase consists of nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... microalloy steels, with a medium-carbon content (0.35 to 0.50% C) and additional strengthening through vanadium carbonitride precipitation. The parts were subjected to accelerated air cooling directly from the forging temperature. The AISI grade 1541 microalloy steel with either niobium or vanadium has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for solution heat treating and age hardening, quenching, tempering, annealing, normalizing, stress relieving, brazing, carburizing, and carbonitriding. With respect to heat treating furnaces, there are a number of special-purpose types, including continuous slab and billet heating furnaces, electron...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... , 69 , 70 ), carburizing/carbonitriding ( Ref 45 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 ), induction hardening ( Ref 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 94 ), laser hardening ( Ref 95 , 96 , 97 , 98 ), and tempering ( Ref 59 , 99...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-endothermic Clean hardening 63.0 17.0 … 20.0 … 502 Rich exothermic-endothermic Gas carburizing 60.0 19.0 … 21.0 … 600 Raw ammonia Nitriding, carbonitriding … … … … … 601 Dissociated ammonia Brazing, sintering 25.0 … … 75.0 … 621 Lean combusted ammonia Neutral heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... extended heating time, plus the presence of a small amount of undissociated ammonia, led to formation of the embrittling layer. Fig. 274 and 275 : Grain-boundary damage at surface of AISI 1070 spring part. SEM, 1000× and 2000×. Fig. 276 and 277 : Nitrides (or carbonitrides) in grain boundaries. SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., nitrides, and carbonitrides on the surface of zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, niobium, and their alloys. The ceramic surfaces of HVS-processed materials provide both wear and corrosion resistance, protecting the unreacted interior of the host material. The properties of the reacted material can be tailored...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the rapid diffusion of carbon through the interconnected porosity. Therefore, atmosphere carbon potentials need to be somewhat higher than those required for wrought steels of similar composition. Carbonitriding is probably the more common case-hardening treatment used on P/M parts. Here process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Machining grade cermets include titanium carbonitride compositions based Ti(C,N)-Ni-Mo and (Ti,Mo) (C,N). These materials can also be alloyed with a variety of other carbides, such as Mo 2 C, TaC, ZrC, HfC, WC, VC, and Cr 3 C 2 . Cermets are used in semifinishing and finishing of carbon and alloy steels...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 601 617 X 214 556 230 HL HX 1095–1205 °C (2000–2200 °F) 601 617 230 HL HU HX 601 214 601 617 230 HX 601 617 230 HL HX Table 2 Recommended materials for parts and fixtures for carburizing and carbonitriding furnaces Part 815–1010 °C (1500–1850 °F) Wrought Cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... strip, which eliminates carbon diffusion as a variable in the atmosphere evaluation. The accuracy of this test is adequate for application to carbon control of commercial carburizing, carbon restoration, and carbonitriding. In practice, a strip of annealed 1010 steel, 32 by 75 by 0.1 to 0.15 mm (1...