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carbon dioxide lasers

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Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...Abstract Abstract Laser beam machining removes, melts, or thermally modifies a material by focusing a coherent beam of monochromatic light on the workpiece. This article describes the principal lasers used in metal processing: neodymium-glass, carbon dioxide, and neodymium-doped yttrium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract Cutting with lasers is accomplished with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers. This article provides a description of the process variables and principles of laser cutting. It discusses the three basic types of CO 2 gas lasers, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... carbon dioxide LBW processes, as well as the pulsed Nd:YAG process. The rapid thermal cycles made possible by these processes result in uniform distribution of reinforcement and a very fine grain size. In one study, CW carbon dioxide laser-beam welds were produced on cast A356 (Al-7Si-0.3Mg)/SiC/15 p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...” that combined LBW with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) ( Ref 1 ). Since then, arc processes including GTAW, gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and plasma arc welding have been used; however, GMAW has become the most popular arc process for HLAW. Historically, high-power continuous-wave lasers such as carbon dioxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... transversely excited atmosphere (TEA) carbon dioxide laser has made possible the inspection of many composite components ( Ref 17 , 18 ), because large longitudinal ultrasound pulses can be created without damage. However, carbon dioxide lasers do pose several problems, including the handling of gases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the bare epoxy signal for both laser wavelengths (i.e., the CO 2 and 3.3 μm data cannot be directly compared). This shows there is considerable variance in signal strength for different surface conditions. BMI, bismaleimide The short-pulse transversely excited atmosphere (TEA) carbon dioxide laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... oxides may be produced by a welding arc or other high-temperature heat sources. Carbon monoxide forms when an arc decomposes carbon dioxide and inorganic carbonate compounds. Levels can be especially significant when carbon dioxide is used as the shielding gas. The quantity and chemical composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... austenite structure is shown on the right side of Fig. 9(a) , where a carbon dioxide laser-beam weld was made over a gas-tungsten arc weld in an alloy of 23Cr-12Ni-balance Fe with a Cr eq /Ni eq ratio of 1.9 ( Ref 26 ). These welds solidify as single-phase ferrite, but subsequently transform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of laser beam for three different transverse electromagnetic modes (TEM). Horizontal axis shows increasing distance from the center of the heat source to the surface. Some laser systems, such as the multikilowatt carbon-dioxide laser, operate with the TEM 01 as the dominant mode. This donut shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... power sources, carbon dioxide shielding gas allows for deeper penetration and improved fusion characteristics but generally produces more spatter than inert shielding gases such as argon. Mixtures of carbon dioxide and argon can be used to achieve a compromise between weld penetration and spatter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., it is desirable to identify and eliminate their causes. Test samples were prepared for Raman analysis by bubbling carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) or sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) through molten glass (68SiO 2 -14NaO 2 -12BaO-6ZnO). Raman bands associated with CO 2 and SO 2 were monitored, and their appearance correlated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., grating; A, polarization analyzer; C, collection optics; S, polarization scrambler Fig. 5 Laser Raman microprobe. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 1 Energy-level diagram of molecular light-scattering processes. Fig. 4 Stray light rejection for single, double, and triple monochromators...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... mixing Substrate treatment Diffusion methods: Carburizing Nitriding Carbonitriding Nitrocarburizing Boriding Titanium-carbon diffusion Toyota diffusion process Selective-hardening methods: Flame hardening Induction hardening Laser hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... constituents from normal operations include products of volatilization, reaction, or oxidation of consumables, base metals, coatings, and atmospheric contaminants. Reasonably expected gaseous products include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, fluorides, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. The quantity and chemical...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
..., and laser drilling. abrasive waterjet cutting alloy steels carbon drilling electrical chemical grinding grinding laser drilling machinability machining microstructure milling shaping steel grades thread cutting turning THE COMPETITIVE COST PERFORMANCE of machining steel is dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of the cantilever are then detected by using a highly sensitive laser/photodiode system. The AFM tips normally are made of silicon and have lengths that are 0.5 to 2 μm with a tip diameter of 5 nm. Carbon nanotubes have also been used as AFM tips. Other AFM techniques, such as lateral force, electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... was unable to provide reliable joining. Until the 1970s, laser welding had been restricted to relatively thin materials and low speeds because of the limited continuous power available. High-power continuous-wave carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... useful of which is the carbon dioxide laser, which has output powers ranging from 500 W to multikilowatts. The depth of melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... is controlled by the dissolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide and typically has an equilibrium pH of approximately 5.6 ( Ref 24 ). The presence of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in atmospheric moisture is important for the formation of light-colored patinas on lead and zinc. Hydrocerussite, a lead carbonate...