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carbon dioxide lasers

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Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Laser beam machining removes, melts, or thermally modifies a material by focusing a coherent beam of monochromatic light on the workpiece. This article describes the principal lasers used in metal processing: neodymium-glass, carbon dioxide, and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract Cutting with lasers is accomplished with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers. This article provides a description of the process variables and principles of laser cutting. It discusses the three basic types of CO 2 gas lasers, namely, slow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... carbon dioxide LBW processes, as well as the pulsed Nd:YAG process. The rapid thermal cycles made possible by these processes result in uniform distribution of reinforcement and a very fine grain size. In one study, CW carbon dioxide laser-beam welds were produced on cast A356 (Al-7Si-0.3Mg)/SiC/15 p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) ( Ref 1 ). Since then, arc processes including GTAW, gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and plasma arc welding have been used; however, GMAW has become the most popular arc process for HLAW. Historically, high-power continuous-wave lasers such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... transversely excited atmosphere (TEA) carbon dioxide laser has made possible the inspection of many composite components ( Ref 17 , 18 ), because large longitudinal ultrasound pulses can be created without damage. However, carbon dioxide lasers do pose several problems, including the handling of gases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006960
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... used for dissolving support structures can cause possible hazardous exposure during handling ( Ref 8 ). The thermal decomposition of polymer powders produces toxic fumes that include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and aldehydes. Materials such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and polylactic acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the bare epoxy signal for both laser wavelengths (i.e., the CO 2 and 3.3 μm data cannot be directly compared). This shows there is considerable variance in signal strength for different surface conditions. BMI, bismaleimide The short-pulse transversely excited atmosphere (TEA) carbon dioxide laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... mixing Substrate treatment Diffusion methods: Carburizing Nitriding Carbonitriding Nitrocarburizing Boriding Titanium-carbon diffusion Toyota diffusion process Selective-hardening methods: Flame hardening Induction hardening Laser hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... power sources, carbon dioxide shielding gas allows for deeper penetration and improved fusion characteristics but generally produces more spatter than inert shielding gases such as argon. Mixtures of carbon dioxide and argon can be used to achieve a compromise between weld penetration and spatter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... carbon nanotubes, silica, metals/metal oxides, ceramics, clays, buckyballs, graphene, polymers, titanium dioxide, and waxes. These can be produced by a variety of methods, including chemical vapor deposition, plasma arcing, electrodeposition, sol-gel synthesis, and ball milling. The application...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... been studied ( Ref 16 ). Because these inclusions generally degrade the appearance and mechanical strength of the glass, it is desirable to identify and eliminate their causes. Test samples were prepared for Raman analysis by bubbling carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) or sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) through molten...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Carbon dioxide and SO 2 gaseous inclusions were identified by their Raman bands at 1389 and 1286 cm −1 for CO 2 and 1151 cm −1 for SO 2 . The ratio of the CO 2 to SO 2 concentrations was quantitatively determined by the relative band intensities to be 11:1. The Raman microprobe analysis further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... oxides may be produced by a welding arc or other high-temperature heat sources. Carbon monoxide forms when an arc decomposes carbon dioxide and inorganic carbonate compounds. Levels can be especially significant when carbon dioxide is used as the shielding gas. The quantity and chemical composition...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... deposition temperatures for thermal and plasma CVD Table 1 Typical deposition temperatures for thermal and plasma CVD Material Deposition temperature Thermal CVD Plasma CVD °C °F °C °F Silicon nitride 900 1650 300 570 Silicon dioxide 800–1100 1470–2010 300 570 Titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... print cells and multicellular systems through high-viscosity cell-laden hydrogels for various other medical purposes. Selective Laser Sintering Selective laser sintering (SLS), also called the powder bed fusion process, uses a carbon dioxide laser beam as the thermal source for inducing fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... was unable to provide reliable joining. Until the 1970s, laser welding had been restricted to relatively thin materials and low speeds because of the limited continuous power available. High-power continuous-wave carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of laser beam for three different transverse electromagnetic modes (TEM). Horizontal axis shows increasing distance from the center of the heat source to the surface. Some laser systems, such as the multikilowatt carbon-dioxide laser, operate with the TEM 01 as the dominant mode. This donut shape...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metal with no added filler. In conduction-limited LBW, the metal absorbs the laser beam at the work surface. The subsurface region is heated entirely by thermal conduction. Conduction-limited LBW uses solid-state and moderate-power carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) lasers and is normally performed with low average...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... austenite structure is shown on the right side of Fig. 9(a) , where a carbon dioxide laser-beam weld was made over a gas-tungsten arc weld in an alloy of 23Cr-12Ni-balance Fe with a Cr eq /Ni eq ratio of 1.9 ( Ref 26 ). These welds solidify as single-phase ferrite, but subsequently transform...