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carbon dioxide

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 5 Equilibrium percentages of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide required to maintain various carbon concentrations at 975 °C (1790 °F) in plain carbon and certain low-alloy steels. K = 89.67. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Channeling (“grooving”) of condensate return line due to carbon dioxide leaking into steam/condensate system More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 6 Variation in the relation between dew point and carbon dioxide in the generation of an endothermic atmosphere, as obtained from four plants. The generator in each plant was operated at a different temperature, in the range of 1005 to 1095 °C (1840 to 2000 °F). More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 2 Temperature and percentage of carbon dioxide for equilibrium conditions with carbon steels of various carbon contents More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 9 Relation between dew point and carbon dioxide content in the generation of an endothermic-based atmosphere More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 3 Calculated equilibrium relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and carbon content in an endothermic-based atmosphere. Carbon monoxide content is assumed to be 20%. More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 7 Variation in the relationship between dewpoint and carbon dioxide in the generation of an endothermic atmosphere, as obtained from four plants. The generator in each plant was operated at a different temperature, in the range of 1005 to 1095 °C (1840 to 2000 °F). More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 14 Carbon dioxide emission of different melting furnaces for melting of cast iron (1996). LF-ICF, low-frequency induction crucible furnace; MF-ICF, medium-frequency induction crucible furnace More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 15 Carbon dioxide emission of different melting furnaces for melting of cast iron (2007). LF-ICF, low-frequency induction crucible furnace; MF-ICF, medium-frequency induction crucible furnace More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 16 Carbon dioxide emission of different melting furnaces for melting of cast iron (2020). LF-ICF, low-frequency induction crucible furnace; MF-ICF, medium-frequency induction crucible furnace More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Pack carburizing is a process in which carbon monoxide derived from a solid compound decomposes at the metal surface into nascent carbon and carbon dioxide. In addition to discussing the pros and cons of pack carburizing, this article provides information on the carburizing medium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... decarburization. It demonstrates how the carbon potential control is achieved by controlling water vapor concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, or oxygen partial pressure. The article also describes the various devices and analyzers used to monitor sampled gas from furnace atmospheres, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract The shielding gas used in an arc welding process has a significant influence on the overall performance of the welding system. These gases are argon, helium, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. This article discusses the shielding gas selection criteria for plasma arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract This article describes the effects of furnace atmospheric elements, including air, water vapor, molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, on steels. It provides useful information on six groups of commercially important prepared atmospheres classified by the American Gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes the effects of furnace atmospheric elements on steels. These elements are air, water vapor, molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The article provides useful information on six groups of commercially important prepared atmospheres classified...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract Cutting with lasers is accomplished with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers. This article provides a description of the process variables and principles of laser cutting. It discusses the three basic types of CO 2 gas lasers, namely, slow...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Laser beam machining removes, melts, or thermally modifies a material by focusing a coherent beam of monochromatic light on the workpiece. This article describes the principal lasers used in metal processing: neodymium-glass, carbon dioxide, and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., compressed air, nitrogen, helium, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, acetylene, kerosene, propylene, propane, and natural gas. The article also provides information on the maintenance and safety practices involved in the plumbing configurations of cylinder gas supply units and bulk gas supply units...
Image
Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 1 Effect of shielding gas blends on weld profile using direct current electrode positive. (a) Argon versus argon-oxygen. (b) Carbon dioxide versus argon/carbon dioxide. (c) Helium versus argon-helium. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 1 Effect of shielding gas blends on weld profile using direct current electrode positive (DCEP). (a) Argon versus argon-oxygen. (b) Carbon dioxide versus argon/carbon dioxide. (c) Helium versus argon-helium. Source: Ref 5 More