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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... content carbon dioxide carbon monoxide dew point generators hardening AIR IS A MAJOR CONSTITUENT in many prepared atmospheres when no protective atmosphere is used. The chemical makeup of air is approximately 79% molecular nitrogen and 21% molecular oxygen, with trace amounts of carbon dioxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... hardening. This article provides a model-based description of the development of residual stresses during case hardening. It also describes the influence and effects of residual stresses and distortion in hardening, carburizing, and nitriding processes of the steel. axial stress carbon content...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... easily and consistently reproduced from one test to another. These include the Jominy end-quench test, the carburized hardenability test, and the surface-area-center hardenability test. This article discusses the effects of varying carbon content as well as the influence of different alloying elements on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 1 Summary of specification requirements for various carbon steel castings Unless otherwise noted, all the grades listed in this table are restricted to a phosphorus content of 0.040% max and a sulfur content of 0.045% max. Class or grade Tensile strength (a) Yield strength (a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... temperature and effective carbon content. The partitioning effect of substitutional alloying elements, such as chromium, manganese, and silicon, in pearlitic steel is also illustrated. alloying elements chromium eutectoid transformation hypereutectoid structure hypoeutectoid structure Iron-carbon...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Carbon-carbon composites (CCCs) are introduced in fields that require their high specific strength and stiffness, in combination with their thermoshock resistance, chemical resistance, and fracture toughness, especially at high temperatures. The use of CCCs has expanded as the price of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes the forms of embrittlement associated with carbon and low-alloy steels. The article provides information on the effect of composition, manufacturing practices, and microstructure on notch toughness of steels. Finally, it explains the effects of alloy elements, inclusion content, microstructure and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the different classification and designation systems of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel product forms with total alloying element contents not exceeding 5″. It lists the quality descriptors, chemical compositions, cast or heat composition...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... comparable microstructures, the strength and hardness are raised as the carbon content is increased; however, toughness and ductility are reduced by increases in carbon content (workability, weldability, and machinability are also deleteriously affected by higher carbon contents). The influence of carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... mechanical properties of low- and medium-carbon steel forgings in the annealed, normalized, quenched and tempered conditions are listed in Table 7 . As expected, strength increases while ductility decreases with increasing carbon content. In addition, sound, dense, good-quality metal of sufficiently fine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... steels can be found in Ref 1 . The American Iron and Steel Institute defines carbon steel as follows: Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, columbium [niobium], molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium...
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