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calibration

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Most modern instrumental techniques produce an output or signal that is not absolute. To obtain quantitative information, the raw output from an instrument must be converted into a physical quantity. This is done by standardizing or calibrating the raw response from an instrument and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the concepts and applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering the basic principles and neutron reactions of NAA as well as calibration methods used for NAA. The discussion also covers the factors pertinent to analytical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... variables that should be considered when selecting standard reference blocks and describes the three types of standard blocks ordinarily used for calibration or reference: area-amplitude blocks, distance-amplitude blocks, and blocks of the type sanctioned by the International Institute of Welding. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article provides guidelines for the assessment of model quality in materials science and engineering. It discusses the fundamentals of model quality assessment and the calibration of mechanistic material models. The article reviews the considerations for the model verification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... OES, along with various types of emission sources commonly used for OES. Some of the processes involved in calibration and quantification of OES for direct solids analysis by the ratio method are then described. The article ends with a discussion on the applications of each type of emission sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... interferences in AAS, namely vaporization, ionization, matrix interferences, and background correction. Some of the methods for the analysis of microliter-sized samples and methods of standard additions to the sample solution for generating calibration standards are then reviewed. The article concludes with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-state NMR, sample-spinning requirements, and extraneous signals is then included. Various factors pertinent to accurate calibration of the NMR spectrum are also described. The article provides information on some of the parameters both beneficial and problematic for processing NMR data. It ends with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by a discussion on the various components of a GDMS system as well as commercial GDMS instruments. A description of processes involved in specimen preparation and cleaning in GDMS is then presented. Various problems pertinent to multielemental calibrations in GDMS are discussed along with measures to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Various steps involved in the sample preparation, calibration, and data analysis are then discussed. The article concludes with a section on the applications and interpretation of LEIS in material analysis, including discussion on surface structural analysis, layer-by-layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most common thermal technique for polymer characterization. This article provides a detailed account of the various factors and processes involved in DSC. The discussion covers the equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... various criteria to be considered for specimen preparation and calibration of TGAs. The use of thermogravimetric analysis data in the assessment of failure analysis of plastics and the combined usage of TGA with other techniques to understand the changes in the sample are also covered. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... involved in preparation of test specimen for DMA measurements. Some factors to be considered when calibrating the DMA instrument are provided, along with a description on processes for interpreting the temperature and frequency dependence of DMA curves as well as the applications of DMA. dynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The discussion covers the general principles, equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration conditions, data analysis steps, and examples of the applications and interpretation of TMA. Thermomechanical analysis Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is a thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), covering the basic principles of PIXE analysis and calibration and quality-assurance protocols employed. A comparative study on PIXE and x-ray fluorescence is then presented. The article also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses various concepts of micro x-ray diffraction (XRD) used for the examination of materials in situ. The discussion covers the principles, equipment used, sample preparation procedure, considerations for calibrating a detector, steps for performing data analysis, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... neutron diffraction, powder diffraction, and pair distribution function analysis. The relationship between detector space and reciprocal space are presented. Various factors involved in sample preparation, calibration, and techniques used for analyzing diffraction data are described. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... calibration of materials for accurate measurements using XPS are provided, along with some aspects of the accuracy in quantitative analysis by XPS. In addition, the article presents examples of how XPS data can be used to solve problems with surface interactions. chemical composition X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... their applications, limitations, and advantages. It includes details on NDE codes, calibration standards, inspection frequency, guidance on how to perform inspections, applicability, and mandatory and nonmandatory practice. The article also provides tips on where to focus inspections in order to align...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... quality m / z spectra, the mass spectrometer must be tuned and calibrated prior to use. While this varies between instrument manufacturers, it typically consists of a mixture of ionizable, highly purified molecules of known m / z or known atomic composition. Using a calibration standard enables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (Δ T ) term in Eq 12 and 13 is often referred to as the TSA signal or TSA response. In later sections of this article, calibration of this signal to stress units is discussed, but for more qualitative investigations, the uncalibrated detector response still is useful whether it is displayed in...