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calcium salt

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... mixtures of the following salts: potassium chloride, sodium chloride, barium chloride, or calcium chloride (see Table 1 for two typical examples). An advantage of these baths is that when they are freshly prepared, the steel surface will be clean without surface carburization or decarburization. High...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract The rate and form of corrosion that occur in a particular situation depend on many complex variables. This article discusses the rate of corrosion of lead in natural and domestic water depending on the degree of water hardness caused by calcium and magnesium salts. Lead exhibits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... temperature differential ( Table 4 ). Table 4 Properties of salt contaminants Salt Equilibrium partial pressure, mm Hg Relative humidity of air above saturated solution, % Dewpoint/surface temperature differential °C °F Zinc chloride 1.8 10 35.1 95 Calcium chloride 6.2 35 18...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of silicon eutectic is described to explain effects ancillary to silicon modification. The article also discusses the effects of elements, such as phosphorus, antimony, bismuth, magnesium, boron, and calcium, on the silicon structure. aluminum silicon alloys aluminum alloys antimony bismuth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Hydroxylapatite Dense, nonporous (or porous), resorbable ceramics are designed to be slowly replaced by bone Calcium sulfate (plaster of paris) Tricalcium phosphate Calcium phosphate salts A comparison of the relative chemical activity of the different types of bioceramics, glasses, and glass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... article provides a discussion on the mechanism of corrosion resistance and on the behavior of tantalum in different corrosive environments, namely, acids; salts; organic compounds; reagents, foods, and pharmaceuticals; body fluids and tissues; and gases. It contains several tables that summarize the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... , as applied to quenching, refers to aqueous solutions containing various percentages of salts, such as sodium or calcium chloride. The cooling rates produced by brine are higher than those provided by water for the same degree of agitation, as shown in Table 1 , or alternatively, less agitation is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion resistance; and corrosion applications of these precious metals. The article also tabulates the corrosion rates of these precious metals in corrosive environment, namely, acids, salts, and halogens. corrosion resistance fabricability gold iridium mechanical properties osmium oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... describes the corrosion behavior of copper alloys in specific environments. It reviews the corrosion characteristics of copper and copper alloys in various acids, alkalis, salts, organic compounds, and gases. The article provides information on the behavior of copper alloys that is susceptible to stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... depleted uranium, UF 6 tailings are reduced to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ), called “green salt,” which is further reduced to derby uranium metal by a thermite-type bomb reduction with magnesium metal. Calcium metal has also been used to reduce UF 4 to derby metal. Typical derby chemical analysis ranges...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... great importance in the builder packages of alkaline cleaners. A key function of phosphates is their ability to complex with hard water salts. By “softening” these hard water salts, they eliminate the formation of flocculate precipitation caused by calcium, magnesium, and iron. Phosphates are also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... and work hardening. Finally, the article provides information on the equipment used for the heat treating of copper and copper alloys, including batch-type atmosphere furnaces, continuous atmosphere furnaces, and salt baths. annealing bronzes cold forming copper copper alloys dispersion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article examines the high-temperature oxidation of silica-forming ceramics under constant temperature and cyclic conditions. The effects of water vapor, impurities, and molten salts are discussed. The article describes the oxidation and corrosion of silica-forming composites...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... conditions Fired under reducing conditions White Aluminum oxide, antimony oxide, arsenic oxide, calcium borate, cerium compounds, magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxide, silver, tin oxide, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, zirconium dioxide … Black Chrome ore + pyrolusite + cobalt oxide, chromium...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... areas of importance include Pb-60Sn (solders), antimony-lead and calcium-lead (battery grids), and Pb-7Sn (terne plating). The melting and casting of pure lead and foundry alloys pose fewer problems than with other nonferrous systems. The major lead alloys have relatively low melting points (315 to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Refractories are used as lining materials for heat and mass containment in high-temperature processing equipment such as furnaces and kilns. Some typical examples are silica, alumina, chromium oxide, calcium oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide. Minimizing corrosion of refractories and ceramics requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... composition also affects corrosion behavior. A clean, unprotected magnesium alloy surface exposed to indoor or outdoor atmospheres free from salt spray will develop a gray film that partly protects the metal from corrosion while causing only negligible losses in mechanical properties. Chlorides, sulfates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ion, such as lanthanum(III) at sufficiently high concentration (e.g., 1% by mass) ( Ref 15 ). This enables formation of the respective lanthanum salts, thus allowing the calcium to form either the hydroxide or oxide, which is more efficiently atomized to yield gaseous calcium atoms. Another approach...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... … … Phosphates are of great importance in the builder packages of alkaline cleaners. A key function of phosphates is their ability to complex with hard water salts. By “softening” these hard water salts, they eliminate the formation of flocculate precipitation caused by calcium, magnesium, and iron. Phosphates...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... domestic waters depends on the degree of water hardness. Water hardness is primarily caused by calcium and magnesium salts in the water. These salts, if present in at least moderate amounts (>125 ppm), form films on lead that adequately protect it against corrosive attack. Silicate salts present in the...