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calcium concentration

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 3 Corrosion rate versus calcium concentration in three different waters. A, HCO 3 − = 38 mg/L, Cl − = 78 mg/L, SO 4 2 − = 78 mg/L; B, HCO 3 − = 100 mg/L, Cl − = 224 mg/L, SO 4 2 − = 224 mg/L; C, HCO 3 − = 266 mg/L, Cl − = 644 mg/L More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 27 Concentration of predominant oxides of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicates (CMAS), grouped by examples of sources of siliceous debris, compositions reported for actual deposits in engines, and model compositions used in laboratory investigations of the problem. Source: Ref 196 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... The ASTM International and NACE International standards that are directly or indirectly applicable to simulated service corrosion testing in water are tabulated. The article also describes the effects of variable concentrations of dissolved carbonates, such as calcium, magnesium, and/or sodium, in water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... as the product {Ca 2+ }×{CO 3 2− } and has the numerical value of 5×10 −9 ( M 2 ) at 25 °C (77 °F) ( Ref 4 ). {Ca 2+ } is the activity or ideal concentration of calcium ions, and {CO 3 2− } is the carbonate ion activity. Equilibrium constants are functions of temperature. The activity is related to actual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... still contain dissolved matter. Removal of Hardness Ions The most troublesome dissolved materials that can have a negative impact on boiler operations are the hardness ions, calcium and magnesium. These ions, when concentrated, can form sparingly soluble salts (scales) and deposit on internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... values. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions was fixed at 0.2 mol/L. The particle morphology of the collected DCPD particles was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Figure 1 shows the dependence of the DCPD particle morphology on the acetate content and pH of the production...
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 1 Scanning electron micrograph of a calcium phosphate coating on the surface of a poly (carbonate urethane) substrate, formed by immersion in a concentrated simulated body-fluid-like solution. Courtesy of D.H. Barnes More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 9 Concentration of oxygen and aluminum in liquid steel in equilibrium with calcium aluminate at 1600 °C (2910 °F); arrows indicate oxygen values when the reaction product is pure Al 2 O 3 . Source: Ref 18 More
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Published: 12 September 2022
curcumin-loaded 3D TCP (3D TCP LC). (c–d) Reprinted from Ref 83 with permission from ACS Publications. (e) In vitro calcium ion release and Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE) from β-TCP (TCP), dopamine-coated TCP with different dopamine HCl concentrations of 2, 5, and 10 mg/mL (TCP + PD 2, 5, and 10 More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is required in solution to achieve a given level of oxygen. This is illustrated in Fig. 9 , which plots the oxygen activity of iron as a function of the concentration of CaO in the calcium aluminate inclusion. Separate lines are given for aluminum concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.05% Al. Also indicated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... To a first approximation, river water is a 0.4 millimolar (m mol/L) solution of calcium bicarbonate as shown in Table 2 ( Ref 4 ). At a salinity of 10‰, the calcium concentration calculated using Eq 2 and Table 1 , but ignoring the river input, will be 10% too low. The error for bicarbonate ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... <0.05 2 Barium peroxide, all concentrations Room Attacked Bismuth oxide, all concentrations Room Slight attack Calcium bisulfite, pure Boiling <0.05 2 Calcium carbonate, all concentrations Room Slight attack Calcium chloride, all concentrations 100 212 <0.05 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., the intensity of the absorbance can be directly correlated to the concentration of the colored species. (See the section “Color Interpretation and Quantitation” in this article.) If the color is observed by the human eye rather than an instrument, the identification will be more subjective. Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the molding cycle, and reduce the overall cost of the compound. Commonly used fillers include calcium carbonate, hydrated alumina, and clay. Calcium carbonates are readily available and can be added to polyester resin in large amounts, while still maintaining a processable paste. They assist in reducing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... children. Lead Production Primary Lead Lead occurs in deposits widespread throughout the world. Although it is not considered a rare metal, it makes up only 0.0016% of the earth's crust. Lead ores do, however, tend to be concentrated in pockets, which makes mining of such ores economical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., or tantalum should never be exposed to an acid containing ABF or hydrofluoric acid because they will dissolve rapidly. For calcium water scales, the concentration of ABF additive should be limited to 0.75% or less to prevent the precipitation of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ). Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrofluoric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Ores, which consist of the primary valuable mineral, predominant gangue content, valuable by-products, and detrimental impurities, are extracted and directed to mineral processing. This article describes the mineral processing facilities, such as crushers, grinders, concentrators...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... The article describes third-generation bioceramics, classified by Hench and Polak, such as silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite and bone morphogenic protein-carrying calcium phosphate coatings. It reviews several examination methods used to test the biocompatibility of ceramics, namely, biosafety testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... ). The important point is that it does not increase the concentration of metal in the brain and reduces organ concentration of metal including the kidney. It may also be effective in removal of copper, nickel, and cadmium immediately after exposure but not from tissue stores. Calcium EDTA Calcium EDTA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and handling of etchants, solvents, acids, bases, and other chemicals. It describes the safety precautions and procedures for handling concentrated and dilute hydrofluoric acid. The article concludes with a discussion on the precautions to be followed in the event of spills and cleanup. acids bases...