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c-scan methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... discusses the principles of each of these inspection methods. It describes the applications and the basic data formats for single-element transducer-based systems, including A-scans, B-scans, and C-scans. The article provides information on electronic equipment used for ultrasonic inspection. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... is the Faraday constant (96,495 C/mol), and Q is the minimum number of coulombs (C) required to alter the charge of N moles of a given species by n units. The reaction may involve deposition (of silver, for example) on an electrode; dissolution from an attackable anode, such as of silver or tin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... material removed, 18.8 mm 3 /mm. (b) Finishing. Relative MRR, 1 mm 3 /mm · s; relative volume of material removed, 1.6 mm 3 /mm. (c) Roughing and finishing. Source: Ref 4 The residual stress effects of finishing processes can have a significant impact on the performance and viability of engineering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals and operating principles of the following acoustic microscopy methods: scanning laser acoustic microscopy, C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy, and scanning acoustic microscopy. It describes the applications of acoustic microscopy for detecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... A-scans, w k ( t ), are generated and used to form scan lines in an image. In a B-scan, the t in each A-scan always is associated with a range coordinate equal to ct /2, where c is the speed of sound, and the focal law, k , defines the other coordinate. Examples for swept-aperture linear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., electromagnetic, and eddy-current NDE full-body scans in a single pass ( Ref 2 , 5 ), which saves on time and equipment space requirements. Combination systems typically include multiple orientations of transducers, receivers, probes, and sensors so they can detect defects in multiple orientations (longitudinal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metals except Re, Pt; in weak acid, Pb, Be, and alkali earth metals do not precipitate. HCl can dissolve residue. F − Strong acid Th, U 4+ , Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, rare earths Al precipitates from basic solution. C 2 O 4 2− Strong acid Th, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Al, rare earths, Co, Cu, Ni, Fe 2+ , Pb...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... an excited atom in a plasma source. The plasma is usually a highly ionized gas, such as argon, extremely hot (more than 10,000 °C, or 18,030 °F), and stable and chemically inert, in order to bring the atoms of any elements up to very high excitation levels. There are two methods for obtaining the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... quickly to the relevant material, this article is divided into sections based on classes of semiconductors that share a common set of analytic techniques. A number of techniques have uses across these categories, such as scanning electron microscopy for imaging surfaces at high spatial resolution, while...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Burners are basic components of equipment for all methods of flame hardening. Burners vary in design, depending on whether they are fired by an oxy-fuel or an air-fuel gas mixture. Flame temperatures obtained by oxy-fuel gas combustion are 2540 °C (4600 °F) and higher. Heat transfer is by direct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... temperature field. Microstructural and deformation information can be computed if necessary. This method has been successfully applied to heating titanium billets and induction hardening of steel bearings ( Ref 16 ). A scanning induction process ( Ref 17 , 18 ) is given to illustrate the methodology. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...). * It is to be noticed that in Fig. 7 the FE mesh is a triangle while it is a quadrangle in Fig. 1(a) . However, both types of elements are possible when coupling with the CA method. Each cell ν is uniquely defined by the coordinates of its center, C ν = ( x ν , y ν ), located in a finite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... orientation) of 7050 at positions corresponding to (a) 7 mm (0.3 in.), (b) 24 mm (1.0 in.), (c) 56 mm (2.2 in.), and (d) 79 mm (3.1 in.). Source: Ref 32 Fig. 21 Differential scanning calorimetry examination of quench-rate effects in 7075 at different distances (mm) from the quenched end of a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... straightforward for B-scan and C-scan presentations. The B-scan always records the front reflection, while internal echoes and/or loss of back reflection are interpreted as flaw indications. Flaw depth is measured as the distance from the front reflection to a flaw echo, the latter representing the front surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... reported for dissimilar bonds. Flaws resulting from diffusion and inertia bonds are influenced by several manufacturing variables, such as part geometry, part fit-up, surface finish, surface contamination, as well as bonding conditions such as time, temperature, and force. An ultrasonic C-scan inspection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-quality image resolution (150 pixels, or picture elements, per scan line) temperature sensitivity to 0.1 °C (0.2 °F). In addition to good image resolution and temperature sensitivity, response times of the order of 0.1 s or less facilitate the detection of transient temperature changes or differentials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspection probe from one part being inspected to another, (b) the speed at which the part is fed through an inspection coil, or (c) the speed with which the inspection coil is caused to scan past the part being inspected. When direct current flows in a coil, the magnetic field reaches a constant level...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... available for all of the underlying films. In metrology situations, this is often the case, but for totally unknown films, other methods normally must be used. The equipment is basically an interferometer that scans wavelength for a fixed interference path rather than scanning distance at a fixed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... elements (especially carbon). Heat treated parts are usually exposed to strongly nonlinear boundary conditions such as surface temperature- and position-dependent HTCs and moving boundary conditions in induction scan-hardening and laser-hardening processes. Although two-dimensional (2-D) models...