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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-acquisition (SCADA) system is used to monitor, collect, and store data from multiple pieces of equipment. burners configurable controllers flow measurement control systems fuel-fired furnaces heat treating furnaces mechanical motion component programmable logic controllers pumps quench agitators...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Flame hardening is a heat treating process in which a thin surface shell of a steel part is heated rapidly to a temperature above the critical temperatures of the steel. The versatility of flame-hardening equipment and the wide range of heating conditions obtainable with gas burners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... for materials at high temperatures, including furnace tests, burner rig testing, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the test methods conducted at high temperature and high pressure. thermodynamics high-temperature corrosion oxidation oxide layers sample preparation high-temperature...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hole, water-cooling system, preheat and furnace scrap burners, and ladles. The article describes the acid and basic steelmaking practices. It discusses the raw materials used, oxidation process, methods of heat reduction, and deoxidation process in the practices. The article provides a discussion on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... alloys used for parts that go through the furnaces, including trays, fixtures, conveyor chains and belts, and quenching fixtures and parts, and the parts that remain in the furnace such as combustion tubes, radiant tubes, burners, thermowells, roller and skid rails, baskets, pots, retorts, muffles, and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... furnace stack melters molten metal circulation forced circulation REVERBERATORY FURNACES have a shallow hearth for melting metal, which is heated indirectly by burners mounted in the roof or in a sidewall of the furnace ( Fig. 1 ). The flame used for melting the metal does not impinge on the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO x Cell Burner Retrofit Long-Term Testing,” Program Task Report DOE/PC/90545-1, Department of Energy , Jan 1994 6. Kung S.C. , “Effect of Iron Sulfide on Furnace Wall Corrosion,” Report TR-111152, Electric Power Research Institute , Nov 1998 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... from the material (indirect heating, e.g., radiant burner tube, radiant panel, muffle). In indirect-fired furnaces, the working chamber is fed with a separately generated atmosphere. Two of the most common types of atmosphere generators are exothermic and endothermic generators. Exothermic generators...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... combustion gas burner(s). The raw material batch was loaded in one end and a series of burners were positioned just above the glass surface, melting the raw material on the surface into a molten glass body underneath. To improve the combustion burner efficiency, regenerators were introduced to the furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Analytical flames are generated by the burning of a mixture of two gases—a fuel and an oxidant—in a burner arrangement that allows introduction of the sample as a fine aerosol. Direct current arc excitation was used to determine 12 trace metal impurities present in phosphor grade calcium tungstate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... within this furnace oxidizing to the steel strip, regardless of burner combustion practices. Burners are usually adjusted to perfect combustion for efficiency. If the combustion ratio of the burners is too rich, then carbon deposits (soot) can form on the strip and completely negate the cleaning purpose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... B.A. and Wortman D.J. , Burner Rig Evaluation of Ceramic Coatings with Vanadium Contaminated Fuel , J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power , Vol 112 , 1990 , p 536 – 542 10.1115/1.2906201 10. Taylor T.A. , Thermal Properties and Microstructure of Two Thermal Barrier Coatings , Surf...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... profile is advantageous in fuel-fired furnaces to provide space for burner flame to circulate. Bale-out (crucible remains fixed in furnace) Holding and melt/holding Die caster Spouted basin Large-capacity crucibles for bulk melting of metal. Metal is usually then transferred to a holding bale-out...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... combustion conditions. In practice, however, some level of excess air is required to completely burn the fuel because of imperfect fuel/air mixing conditions in any commercial burner. In most processes, efficiency is lost because the fuel/air ratio is too lean (too much excess air). The effect of this type...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the combustion that occurs during firing of ceramics and glasses. Factors affecting NO x levels include kiln temperature, burner temperature, concentration of O 2 and N 2 , speed of the mixing burners, and whether combustion air is preheated. A number of techniques can be used to reduce NO x...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... aluminum but are carried to the dross layer by hydrogen gas adsorbed on the inclusion surface or gas bubbles generated by charge contaminants. Turbulence caused by direct impingement of burner flames on the melt can be an especially damaging condition in accelerating the rate of dross formation. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005902
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... Depending on the local conditions, the inductor can be exchanged with the furnace tilted forward or backward. The furnace covers are bolted down tightly, and a sealed opening in the cover allows the melt to be inspected or a sinter burner to be wielded without problem. Tub-shaped channel furnaces (type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... burners. In all torch brazing systems, regulators are used to safely control the gas distribution. Individual regulators are used on the gas and oxygen lines. Standard safety precautions should be utilized when handling the equipment, and operators should be thoroughly trained in safety practices related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... furnace combustion chamber, which in turn is surrounded by heat resistance and thermal insulation materials and the furnace casting. A fuel-air mixture is introduced through a combustion burner. Many different types of burners can be used, including recuperator type. The burner can be controlled very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ). Thermal cycling can be introduced to more accurately model a real application. High-velocity, hydrocarbon-fueled burner rigs subject potential engine materials to an environment that closely approximates actual operating conditions. After these exposures, samples are typically analyzed with a variety of...