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bulk workability testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and the stress state and friction conditions present in the bulk deformation process. These two factors are described and brought together in an experimental workability analysis. bend test bulk deformation bulk workability testing compression test forging fracture limit line partial-width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the equipment design, procedures, experimental considerations, and interpretation of the torsion tests used to establish workability. It describes the application of torsion testing to obtain flow-stress data and to gage fracture-controlled workability and flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., the article details the various factors influencing workability in bulk deformation processes and formability in sheet-metal forming. mechanical testing metalworking workability product quality strength ductility hardness strain-hardening exponent strain-rate effects temperature effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the effects of mechanical plasticity on workability; that is, process control of localized stress and strain conditions to enhance workability. It describes the nature of local stress and strain states in bulk forming processes, leading to a classification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article discusses the bulk formability or workability of steels. It describes their formability characteristics and presents procedures for various formability tests used for carbon and alloy steels. Tests for bulk formability can be divided into two main categories: primary tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are summarized in this article. The most common testing techniques for workability prediction are discussed in “Bulk Workability Testing” in this Handbook. Much greater detail on these tests and on workability tests specific to a particular bulk forming process, such as forging, are given in subsequent articles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... modeling are outlined, and the test methods for determining these properties are described. Special attention is given to the accuracy of data. Additional information on bulk workability testing and sheet formability is also contained in ASM Handbook, Volume 14, Forming and Forging . Testing for Bulk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are in reasonable agreement with experimental findings. However, much refinement of these approaches remains to be undertaken. An application of such bulk workability testing to limited workability steels (T440C and M42) and to carbon steel in the warm working range has been set forth by Wright et al. ( Ref 18...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... WORKABILITY IN FORGING depends on a variety of material, process-variable, and die-design features. In general, forging is a term that can be used to describe a wide variety of bulk metalworking processes, and forging engineers must consider a variety of workability tests to diagnose forging problems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Fig. 10 Fracture loci in cylindrical, tapered, and flanged upset-test specimens of type 1045 cold-finished steel Workability Diagram The results of Fig. 8 , 9 , 10 constitute workability diagrams for free-surface fracture in bulk forming operations. They embody, graphically, both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... material and its flow stress behavior. The second consideration is the fracture behavior of the material and the effects of temperature, stress state, and strain rate on fracture; this combined view of ductility and stress state is termed workability for bulk-forming processes and formability for sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... test, means that a compression test can be conducted to large strains that are comparable to those found in deformation processes such as forging or extrusion. However, as discussed in the article “Bulk Workability Testing,” barreling of the specimen due to friction at the platens complicates...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tests: tension, torsion, and compression. The appropriate parameters for each of these tests are given in Table 6 . Figure 3 also shows the location of the most common bulk metal deformation processes in terms of the level of compressive stress state. Evaluation of the workability parameter, β...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... influencing the selection of a material for production, including material composition, heat-treated condition, surface finish, and cost of material. The article describes the material characteristics, such as terms formability, workability, castability, machinability, and weldability, that aid or hinder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... In torsion testing, unlike tension testing and compression testing, large strains can be applied before plastic instability occurs, and complications due to friction between the test specimen and dies do not arise. For this reason, torsion testing is useful in the evaluation of bulk workability. Torsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of angular displacement. Fig. 1 Typical torsion specimen As described in more detail in the article “Torsion Testing to Assess Bulk Workability,” the shear strain in torsion (γ) increases linearly, starting from zero at the axis and increasing linearly to a maximum value at the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Upset compression testing has become a standard for workability evaluation. As shown in Fig. 14 , a range of strain combinations can be developed at the cylindrical free surface simply by altering friction and geometry conditions. The influence of friction and consequent bulging on circumferential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... (i.e., the stress and strain vary throughout the test specimen), and such tests are not valid for measurement of the bulk elastic and plastic properties of a material. Barreling, however, can be beneficial for the measurement of the localized fracture properties of a material, as described...