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bulk structural characterization

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes the classification of materials characterization methods including, bulk elemental characterization, bulk structural characterization, microstructural characterization, and surface characterization. Further, the article reviews the selection of materials characterization methods most commonly used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms for bulk structural analysis. XRD techniques are also applicable to ceramics, geologic materials, and most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by estimating the cost of each. The bulk processing of structural intermetallic alloys has seen tremendous advances since the 1980s. Although very few parts of these materials are being commercially manufactured and sold at present, production-size quantities of Fe 3 Al and Ni 3 Al have been...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... component wavelengths by diffraction ( Fig. 4 ). The diffraction principle is described in the article “X-Ray Diffraction for Bulk Structural Analysis.” For current purposes, envision it as similar to separating light into its component wavelengths by passing through a prism. An electronic counter is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis. It describes the general considerations for bulk and microscale chemical analysis in failure analysis, the most effective techniques to use for organic or inorganic materials, and examples of using these techniques. The article discusses the processes involved in the chemical analysis of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article for this task. The ring compression test is well suited for determining the friction factor needed for calculation of forming load and as an easily performed way of getting a reasonable value for flow stress. Prediction of fracture in bulk deformation processes is characterized with the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... In this article, consideration is restricted to the shaping of materials by such bulk deformation processes as forging, extrusion, and rolling. The evaluation of workability of a material involves both the measurement of the resistance to deformation (strength) and determination of the extent of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the overall development of the finite element method (FEM) and its contribution to the materials forming industry. It presents an overview of FEM methodologies and applications in the order of their usage in typical manufacturing (bulk forming process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... its flow-stress dependence on processing variables (e.g., strain, strain rate, preheat temperature, and die temperature), its failure behavior, and the phase transformations that characterize the alloy system to which it belongs. Very few mechanical tests are capable of providing information about...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fabrication methods, sample preparation, bulk/elemental characterization methods, microstructural characterization methods, surface characterization methods, and electronic characterization methods. semiconductor characterization This article introduces various techniques commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... important properties to characterize powders, namely the particle size, surface area, density, porosity, particle hardness, compressibility, green strength, and flowability. For characterization of powders, both individual particles and bulk powders are used to evaluate their physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) Quantitative analysis (precision of +20% relative standard deviation) Macroanalysis or bulk analysis Microanalysis (≤10 μm) Surface analysis Major component (>10 wt%) Minor component (0.1–10 wt%) Trace component (1–1000 ppm or 0.0001–0.1 wt%) Phase identification Structure Morphology Atomic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., particularly asperities, must be considered, because too rough a surface can lead to localized heating from friction and microcracking. Because of the possibilities of creating microcracking and reduced wear resistance, localized as well as bulk fracture toughness should be considered. Most ceramics, of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-critical components and highly structural components, the bulk of molding development has been in the area of structural applications. There is a wide variety of possible physical properties available using liquid molding, ranging from slightly reinforced surface panels and covers to highly reinforced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... bulk analysis Microanalysis (≤10 μm) Surface analysis Major component (>10 wt%) Minor component (0.1–10 wt%) Trace component (1–1000 ppm, or 0.0001–0.1 wt%) Structure Morphology Atomic force microscopy N … N … • N … … • • • • … … • Auger electron spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... highly attenuative and therefore pose a challenge to obtaining a back-wall reflection for bulk wave ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements. Because Rayleigh waves are sensitive to surface and subsurface properties, changes to the material structure, such as residual stress, surface coating, and case depth...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-quality dead burnt magnesia Low porosity (bulk density >3.40 g/cm 3 ) Controlled CaO:SiO 2 ratio: >2.5:1) SiO 2 : 0.5%, Fe 2 O 3 : <0.2%, Al 2 O 3 : <0.1%, B 2 O 3 : <0.05%, MgO: <96% Used in the production of magnesia-carbon brick for basic oxygen steelmaking, electric arc furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... (b) Taper section showing the presence of a 400 nm (16 μin.) titanium interlayer The grain structure of the substrate and coating and, sometimes, even the presence of the coating itself can be revealed by etching with an appropriate reagent, as is done for bulk materials. Because it is often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... misuse usually confounds the problem rather than helps solve it. For example, it would be inappropriate to use a bulk analysis technique in an effort to identify a thin layer of surface contamination on a material. The results would reflect the composition of the underlying material, not the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6