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bulk structural analysis

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms for bulk structural analysis. XRD techniques are also applicable to ceramics, geologic materials, and most...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... component wavelengths by diffraction ( Fig. 4 ). The diffraction principle is described in the article “X-Ray Diffraction for Bulk Structural Analysis.” For current purposes, envision it as similar to separating light into its component wavelengths by passing through a prism. An electronic counter is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis. It describes the general considerations for bulk and microscale chemical analysis in failure analysis, the most effective techniques to use for organic or inorganic materials, and examples of using these techniques. The article discusses the processes involved in the chemical analysis of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) process sequence: primary materials processing, hot forging and cold forming, and product assembly. The article discusses the material fracture and dies stress analysis and presents the optimization techniques used in 2-D and 3-D preform die design. bulk forming cold forming finite element method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... stress state and friction conditions present in the bulk deformation process. These two factors are described and brought together in an experimental workability analysis. bend test bulk deformation bulk workability testing compression test forging fracture limit line partial-width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by estimating the cost of each. The bulk processing of structural intermetallic alloys has seen tremendous advances since the 1980s. Although very few parts of these materials are being commercially manufactured and sold at present, production-size quantities of Fe 3 Al and Ni 3 Al have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... crystallographic anisotropy, work-hardening rate, and inhomogeneity size. Fig. 15 Models for the analysis of localized thinning and fracture at a free surface. (a) R-model. (b) Z-model. Source: Ref 6 This model was applied to free surface fracture in bulk forming processes because of evidence that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... application of computer-aided finite-element analysis of plastic deformation and heat flow has facilitated this goal (see “Thermomechanical Testing” in this Handbook). The forming-limit diagrams illustrated and discussed in “Workability Theory and Application in Bulk Forming Processes,” in this Handbook are a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alignment, and the overall precision of the forming equipment. New materials for which substantial progress has been made over the last 20 years include structural-intermetallic alloys and discontinuously reinforced metal-matrix composites (MMCs). For intermetallic alloys, bulk-forming approaches have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... specimens, on the other hand, have a distinct advantage from the point of view of the analysis for stress and strain and are particularly valuable for studies of work hardening at low strains. Fig. 5 Typical torsion specimen geometries used for workability testing. See text for discussion of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... materials are frequently characterized using different analytical techniques. Table 1 Classification of characterization methods most commonly used with metals Type of analysis Information obtained/method Elemental Structural Morphological Bulk X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., particularly asperities, must be considered, because too rough a surface can lead to localized heating from friction and microcracking. Because of the possibilities of creating microcracking and reduced wear resistance, localized as well as bulk fracture toughness should be considered. Most ceramics, of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... experiment are then covered. The article further describes the processes involved in sample preparation that are critical to the success or usefulness of an EBSD experiment. It also discusses the applications of EBSD to bulk samples and the development of EBSD indexing methods. transmission Kikuchi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of high-sputter-rate dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for depth profiling and bulk impurity analysis. It begins with an overview of various factors pertinent to sputtering. This is followed by a discussion on the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... PS, PVC, and PE in Table 12 . However, it is noteworthy that in addition to the bulk effect of the substituent groups, the much higher conductivity values of the PEs are due in part to the increased degree of crystallinity in these polymers, compared to amorphous PS. The thermal conductivity of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the composition analysis of bulk material is shown in Fig. 7 . The sample consists of a magnetic bubble material grown on a gallium gadolinium garnet. Although the bubble material actually is a film, its thickness is much greater than the measurable depth; thus, the film appears as a bulk material...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., essentially as was described in the previous article on “X-Ray Diffraction for Bulk Structural Analysis” and illustrated in Fig. 2 in that article. If such diffraction occurs from a large number of fine randomly oriented crystals in the sample, this results in a series of axisymmetric cones, each cone...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis investigation can be found in the articles “ Examination of Damage and Material Evaluation ,” “ Nondestructive Evaluation Applications for Failure Analysis ,” “ Bulk and Microscale Composition Analysis ,” “ Microfractography and Metallography for Failure Analysis ,” and “ Mechanical Testing in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... component is inoperable ( Ref 1 ), such as a pump shaft fracture that causes the impeller to seize or a loss of load-carrying capability of a structural bolt in service due to fracture. Failure analysis is a systematic, methodical process to determine the physical causes of problems or failures. The...