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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the overall development of the finite element method (FEM) and its contribution to the materials forming industry. It presents an overview of FEM methodologies and applications in the order of their usage in typical manufacturing (bulk forming process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... aluminide alloys, are also discussed. aluminide alloy bulk deformation bulk forming cold-hearth melting conventional hot forging extrusion gamma titanium aluminide alloy intermetallic alloy isothermal forging microstructure silicide intermetallic alloy thermomechanical processing vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the effects of mechanical plasticity on workability; that is, process control of localized stress and strain conditions to enhance workability. It describes the nature of local stress and strain states in bulk forming processes, leading to a classification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Volume presents the state-of-the-art in bulk-metalworking processes. A companion volume ( ASM Handbook , Volume 14B, Metalworking: Sheet Forming ) describes the state-of-the-art in sheet-forming processes. Various major sections of this Volume deal with descriptions of specific processes, selection of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... stress state and friction conditions present in the bulk deformation process. These two factors are described and brought together in an experimental workability analysis. bend test bulk deformation bulk workability testing compression test forging fracture limit line partial-width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... summarized in this article. The most common testing techniques for workability prediction are discussed in “Bulk Workability Testing” in this Handbook. Much greater detail on these tests and on workability tests specific to a particular bulk forming process, such as forging, are given in subsequent articles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... all of these aspects, which is primarily a result of the large deformations that are common in massive forming processes such as forging, extrusion, and rolling. For most common mechanical tests—simple tension and compression tests—the maximum uniform strains achieved are rather low because of necking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... plastic forming. Products manufactured through bulk forming operations, such as rolling or extrusion, and intended for various technological applications, will exhibit characteristic final textures. In particular, sheet forming operations demand optimization of the rolled product anisotropy for ulterior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the roll forming of components of nickel, titanium, and aluminum alloys. The metallurgical characteristics of the roll formed components, such as macrostructures, microstructures, tensile strength, and stress rupture performance, are discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract A wide range of flow-formed open- and close-ended shapes are currently available in a variety of difficult-to-form materials, including titanium alloys and nickel-base super alloys. This article describes the two basic methods of flow forming that are characterized by the position of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the swaging of solid bar stock. Tubes with thinner walls require greater force, depending on tube diameter and length of die, because friction traps the metal between the die and mandrel, and there is no bulk metal to move. Machines with dies that produce a squeezing action are rated according to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... lubricants used in nickel-base alloys forging. It describes two major forging processing categories for nickel-base alloys: primary working and secondary working categories. Primary working involves the deformation processing and conversion of cast ingot or similar bulk material into a controlled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Thread rolling is a cold-forming process for producing threads or other helical or annular forms by rolling the impression of hardened steel dies into the surface of a cylindrical or conical blank. Methods that use cylindrical dies are classified as radial infeed, tangential feed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... routinely provide invaluable insight into bulk-forming processes such as forging, extrusion, rolling, ring rolling, drawing, and cogging, only rarely can it produce an optimal design in the first attempt. A reincarnated legacy design can inherit a mixed bag of pluses and minuses. However, whether the past...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Coextrusion is defined as the simultaneous extrusion of two or more metals to form an integral product that can be carried out using conventional extrusion or drawing equipment at a temperature appropriate to the metal system being formed. This article discusses the applications...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and rotational motion, while lower die rotates. (b) Upper die has translational, rotational, and orbital (rocking) motion; lower die is stationary. (c) Upper die has orbital (rocking) motion only; lower die has translational motion. Abstract Radial forging is a hot- or cold-forming process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... summary in the form of a checklist. datum planes dimensioning draft allowance finish allowance forging design tolerancing tooling points A DIMENSION is a numerical value, typically expressed in decimals of an inch, fractions of an inch (used more so in the past), and decimals of a metric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... process. The indirect rapid tooling technologies include 3D Keltool process, hot isostatic pressing, rapid solidification process tooling, precision spray forming, and radially constricted consolidation process. 3D Keltool process direct rapid tooling forging dies hot isostatic pressing indirect...