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bulk elemental characterization

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes the classification of materials characterization methods including, bulk elemental characterization, bulk structural characterization, microstructural characterization, and surface characterization. Further, the article reviews the selection of materials characterization methods most commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fabrication methods, sample preparation, bulk/elemental characterization methods, microstructural characterization methods, surface characterization methods, and electronic characterization methods. semiconductor characterization This article introduces various techniques commonly...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... precision methods, and sample requirements. The amount of material that needs to be sampled, operating principles, and limitations of the stated methods are also discussed. alloys bulk elemental analysis combustion and inert gas fusion analysis metals optical emission spectroscopy X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the overall development of the finite element method (FEM) and its contribution to the materials forming industry. It presents an overview of FEM methodologies and applications in the order of their usage in typical manufacturing (bulk forming process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms for bulk structural analysis. XRD techniques are also applicable to ceramics, geologic materials, and most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The bulk scan becomes useful for comparing spectra and identifying unique elements. An alternate approach, becoming more advantageous with advances in EDS count rates and data processing, is to collect an x-ray dot map as a bulk analysis, and then perform point analysis in particular locations such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article reviews the bulk deformation processes for various aluminide and silicide intermetallic alloys with emphasis on the gamma titanium aluminide alloys. It summarizes the understanding of microstructure evolution and fracture behavior during thermomechanical processing of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... its flow-stress dependence on processing variables (e.g., strain, strain rate, preheat temperature, and die temperature), its failure behavior, and the phase transformations that characterize the alloy system to which it belongs. Very few mechanical tests are capable of providing information about...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... application of computer-aided finite-element analysis of plastic deformation and heat flow has facilitated this goal (see “Thermomechanical Testing” in this Handbook). The forming-limit diagrams illustrated and discussed in “Workability Theory and Application in Bulk Forming Processes,” in this Handbook are a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Attack morphology and alloy type must be evaluated Severity of exposure conditions can be excessive (check pH, temperature, flow rate, dissolved oxidants, electrical current, metal coupling, aggressive agents) Check bulk composition and contaminants Gouging or abrasive wear (check source of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... important properties to characterize powders, namely the particle size, surface area, density, porosity, particle hardness, compressibility, green strength, and flowability. For characterization of powders, both individual particles and bulk powders are used to evaluate their physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... misuse usually confounds the problem rather than helps solve it. For example, it would be inappropriate to use a bulk analysis technique in an effort to identify a thin layer of surface contamination on a material. The results would reflect the composition of the underlying material, not the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... elemental composition, chemical state, and other important properties of the outermost atomic layers of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, organic materials, and biomaterials in either bulk, thin-film and coating, powder, or particulate format. This Section of the Volume includes articles on recently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., understanding surface characteristics is critical to component design, predicting device performance, and evaluation of device performance. Surface properties, however, are typically very different than the properties of the bulk material, so specialized analytical methods are required to obtain the important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Technique(a) Elemental analysis Speciation Compound Isotopic or mass analysis Qualitative analysis (identification of constituents) Semiquantitative analysis (order of magnitude) Quantitative analysis (precision of +20% relative standard deviation) Macroanalysis or bulk analysis Microanalysis (≤10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... probes are used. Because the depths of analysis of AES and EDS are so different, combining these techniques on a single instrument can provide complementary information about the surface and the bulk of the material. The nomenclature used to identify the various Auger peaks consists of listing the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... absorption spectroscopy, and molecular fluorescence spectroscopy can generally be adapted to perform many of the bulk analyses listed. Method Elemental analysis Speciation Isotopic or mass analysis Qualitative analysis (identification of constituents) Semiquantitative analysis (order of magnitude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... sample.” The sample must be of the same composition as the material from which it originated, which means that the portion of material selected possesses the essential characteristics of the bulk. Nearly all modern instrumental analytical systems are indirect methods that are based on the measurement...