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buffer solution

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract Materials of construction for equipment and piping in pharmaceutical processing plants must be resistant to corrosion from the high-purity water, the buffer solutions used in preparation of the products, and the cleaning solutions used to maintain the purity of the product. The primary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article reviews general corrosion of uranium and its alloys under atmospheric and aqueous exposure as well as with gaseous environments. It describes the dependence of uranium and uranium alloy corrosion on microstructure, alloying, solution chemistry, and temperature as well...
Book Chapter

By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... ) have actually provided a link between two- and three-dimensional films. He found that at low potentials in the passive region (−0.4 to −0.1 V(SHE)) for iron in a nearly neutral borate-buffer solution, the film measured was less than a unit cell for Fe 3 O 4 or γFe 2 O 3 (around 0.84 nm). This film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... alloys. Some common buffers used over the years include borates, phosphate, benzoate, and triethanolamine salts. These buffers have been used by themselves and in combination with each other. Borates are used in the coolant to provide a buffer solution (pH ∼8–9) to prevent the pH from dropping...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Corrosion testing of many implants, except for those intended for exposure to gastric juice, bile, or urine, is performed at close to pH 7.4. The solution must be buffered to maintain the pH value because some reactions occurring in the test cell tend to consume or produce the H + ions. Deaeration, if used...
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Steel springs are made in many types, shapes, and sizes, ranging from delicate hairsprings for instrument meters to massive buffer springs for railroad equipment. The primary focus of this article is small steel springs that are cold wound from wire. Wire springs are of four types...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Electroplated silver is used in both decorative and functional applications, such as engineering and electrical/electronic applications. This article explains the solution formulations and specifications of electrolytes used in silver plating. decorative applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ), and zinc bromide (ZnBr 2 ); various aqueous solutions including seawater or reinjected water separated from oil and gas production; alternating water, steam and/or CO 2 injected for secondary oil recovery; and strong inorganic and organic acids (e.g., hydrochloric, HCl, hydrofluoric, HF, formic, HCOOH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... measurement, using the glass electrode as the sensor. Two procedures are discussed. Method A covers the precise laboratory measurement of pH in water with the use of at least two of seven standard reference buffer solutions for equipment standardization. Method B concerns the routine or continuous measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... if the activity coefficient is known. The calculated hydrogen ion concentration is at best an estimate ( Ref 3 , 4 ), because the test solution usually has constituents that are far different from those of the buffer. The hydrogen ion concentration estimated from the pH as measured by a pH meter and the actual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... − , which has similar mobility. Thus, the titration curve is the reversed-L type. The pre-end point branch of the complexometric titration curve of buffered solutions of Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , and some other metal ions with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) has a considerable upward slope. Conductometric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and handling. The integrity of the sample must be preserved during the inevitable delay between sampling and analysis. Sample preservation may include the addition of preservatives or buffer solutions, pH adjustment, use of an inert gas “blanket,” and cold storage or freezing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... pH ( Ref 18 ), there is also significant agreement that lower pH levels obtained from higher acid gas presence lead to higher corrosion rates. Conversely, higher levels of pH obtained through buffering in simulated production formation water solutions have been shown to produce significantly lower...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Electrogravimetry is the oldest electroanalytical technique in which the element of interest is deposited electrolytically onto an electrode and weighed. This article discusses the principles involved in determining the electrolysis rate of the solution, and describes different methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., a very pure grade of zinc oxide can also be used. The carbonate content of a brass solution is usually regarded as an impurity. It is formed by breakdown of the cyanide. Small amounts (15–20 g/L) are necessary in low-pH solutions to buffer the solution. Without carbonate, the solution is unstable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article describes dental alloy compositions and its properties. It discusses the safety and efficacy considerations of dental alloy devices. The article defines and compares interstitial fluid and oral fluid environments. Artificial solutions developed for the testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... through this region of high electric field, termed the cathode fall, and acquire sufficient energy to ionize the buffer gas. The buffer gas ions are in turn accelerated toward the cathode, gaining sufficient energy to eject atoms of the cathode material when they strike its surface. The sputtered atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... practice to add a relatively large concentration of some easily ionized nonanalyte element, for example, lanthanum or potassium, to all the sample and standard solutions. The electrons produced by these ionization suppressants in the flame buffer the electron concentration and make the degree of analyte...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... E. , Fluoride Release/Uptake of Polyacid-Modified Resin Composites (Compomers) in Neutral and Acidic Buffer Solutions , J. Oral Rehab. , Vol 26 , 1999 , p 388 – 393 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1999.00413.x 47. Yap A.U.J. , Chung S.M. , Chow W.S. , Tsai K.T. , and Lim...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract A potential pH diagram is a graphical representation of the relations, derived from the Nernst equation, between the pH and the equilibrium potentials (E) of the most probable electrochemical reactions occurring in a solution containing a specific element. This article describes three...