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bubble damage

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on ten rules for the effective production of reliable castings. These rules include good-quality melt, liquid front damage, liquid front stop, bubble damage, core blows, shrinkage damage, convection damage, segregation, residual stress, and location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... breakdown, noise, vibration, and particularly erosion ( Ref 7 ), which is the subject of this article. This article is devoted to damage induced by only the mechanical action of the collapsing bubbles without any additional electrochemical effect, as may be the case in corrosive environments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... it enters the gate. The use of the tangential filter ingate is recommended ( Fig. 8 ). This is a novel but simple geometry in which the filter is placed tangentially (parallel) to the flow, so that bubbles do not build up against its surface (eventually bursting through the filter and damaging the casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... However, any helium produced can affect the properties; it is relatively insoluble in metals and will therefore be incorporated into the bubbles or voids that can form within the matrix and on grain boundaries and precipitate interfaces. The displacement damage formed in fusion and fission reactors...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is a kind of flat bubble that is more like a crack. Whereas the bubble is visible, the bifilm is usually so thin that it is invisible and only detected under a good microscope. Both can be exceedingly damaging to the quality of a casting. The critical fall distance (the fall distance under gravity at which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... pressure, the bubbles can collapse suddenly. This collapse can cause surface damage through shock waves and microjets. Shock Waves Surrounding liquid that fills the cavity may have very high speed. When the cavity is reduced to a smaller dimension, pressure in the cavity is so high and the liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Wear Failures Erosive wear occurs in many situations where a large number of small solid or liquid particles impact against a surface or where the collapse of gas-filled bubbles in a cavitating liquid causes surface damage. Some examples of erosive wear failures are given in the following sections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article discusses the tests designed specifically to evaluate the adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of various material systems. It tabulates the characteristics of common types of wear and mechanical surface damage. The article also considers the displaying and analyzing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for those defects produced by contact damage. Examples include bubbles and crystalline inclusions in glasses, and pores, large-grained regions, and microcracks in polycrystalline ceramics. Although pores are not as effective in concentrating stresses as cracks, they are a frequent cause of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cavitation damage can occur without active corrosion. Cavitation principally occurs when relative motion between a metal surface and a liquid environment causes vapor bubbles to appear. When the bubbles collapse, they impose hammerlike blows simultaneously with the initiation of tearing action, which appears...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... COATINGS ARE COMPLEX COMBINATIONS of raw materials that must be mixed, applied to a prepared substrate, and dried and cured correctly to perform to their maximum capability. They must be able to be applied in diverse environmental conditions and then be expected to protect the substrate from the damaging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... from the filtration system. Cleaning service organizations determine the best method to clean the part without damage, based on testing and experience. After the part is cleaned, the cleaning solutions must be thoroughly flushed and dried. Visual inspection, bubble-point testing, weight testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and polishing compounds prior to plating operations, and cleaning greases and sludge from rebuilt components for automotive and aircraft applications. Ultrasonic cleaning is powerful enough to remove tough contaminants, yet gentle enough not to damage the substrate. It provides excellent penetration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... coating thickness is an important aspect of quality. Excessively thick coatings are undesirable, because they are susceptible to mechanical damage. Extremely thin coatings are also undesirable. Porcelain enamels normally contain some very minute discontinuities in the form of entrapped gas bubbles. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... constructs ( Ref 10 – 12 ), but it also resulted in the commercialization of specialized printers such as Poietis ( Ref 13 ). Due to its orifice-free printing nature, LIFT can print highly viscous bioinks with minimized cell damage during printing, meaning that it is a feasible printing modality for high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... before any attempt is made to strip it from the fracture surface. Heating of the film is not recommended, because this may cause the formation of a solvent vapor bubble, followed by rupture of the film when the bubble bursts. After drying, if necessary for the replication media, the replica can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... NOT to alter the original surface. Retain some of the contamination/corrosion product for later analysis. Agitation in an ultrasonic bath can help the cleaning process. Caution: Very soft materials may be damaged by the collapse of air bubbles adjacent to the part surface (cavitation). The sequence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... that can be used to document the sections is to take a digital photograph of the composite material and then organize the sections. Figure 2 shows a composite part that was damaged and removed from an aircraft for analysis. After the documentation, the labeling of composite materials is best performed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... such rusting on the underside of a tube from a different fluidized-bed combustor. This rusting indicates that erosion occurred in a uniform zone around the bottom of the tube, up to the 9 o'clock position. Fig. 2 Carbon steel heat-transfer tube from a fluidized bed that was damaged by erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and techniques followed in failure investigation of boilers and related equipment are discussed. The article is framed with an objective to provide systematic information on various damage mechanisms leading to the failure of boiler tubes, headers, and drums, supplemented by representative case studies...