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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Bronze and brass alloys are two key classes of materials in copper-base powder metallurgy applications. They are often compacted using mechanical or hydraulic pressing machines. This article provides an overview of the powder pressing process, providing information on the powder...
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 17 Recrystallization diagrams of gilding brass (C21000), commercial bronze (C22000), low brass (C24000), and cartridge brass (C26000). (a) C21000 ready-to-finish strip (1 mm, or 0.04 in., thick) that was cold rolled 50% and then annealed 1 h at the indicated temperature. Recrystallization More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 7 Martensite in metastable β′-phase aluminum bronze. (a) Martensite needles in Cu-11.8wt%Al alloy homogenized at 800 °C (1472 °F) and water quenched. (b) Martensite running from bottom right to top left. Cu-11.8wt%Al alloy is heated to 900 °C (1650 °F), held for 1 h, and water quenched More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 44 Horizontal cast strip of tin bronze (5% Sn), showing inverse segregation at the bottom surface of the casting. The bottom is nearly pure tin. Etchant: 40 mL HNO 3 , 25 g CrO 3 , 35 mL H 2 O. 100×. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 45 Phosphor bronze strip rolled from a static cast ingot, showing gross tin sweat on the top surface. This illustrates how segregation caused by exudation persists in the fabricated structure. Etchant not reported. 300×. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 46 Alloy C51000 (phosphor bronze, 5% Sn) rod, extruded, cold drawn, and annealed 30 min at 565 °C (1050 °F). Structure consists of recrystallized α grains with annealing twins. Etchant 4, Table 2 . 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 47 Alloy C95400 (aluminum bronze), solution treated 2 h at 900 °C (1650 °F), water quenched, tempered 2 h at 650 °C (1200 °F), and water quenched. Alpha grains (white martensitic needles) are smaller than in the as-cast condition. Etchant 4, Table 2 . 200× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 48 Alloy C95500 (aluminum bronze with 11.5% Al), as sand cast. Small α grains (light gray, mottled) in matrix of retained β phase (white), with same eutectoid decomposed β phase (dark gray). Compare with Figure 49 . Electrolytically etched in electrolyte 5, Table 5 . 250× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 49 Alloy C95500 (aluminum bronze with 11.0% Al), with larger α grains and a greater amount of eutectoid decomposed β phase in the matrix than Figure 48 . Electrolytically etched in electrolyte 5, Table 5 . 250× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 50 Metal mold cast aluminum bronze casting. Alloy contains 5% Ni and 5% Fe (similar to C95500). Under slow cooling, the laminar Widmänstatten structure (light) is visible on a background of fine martensitic structure (dark). Etchant not reported. 100×. Source: Ref 8 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 51 Cast aluminum bronze (11.8% Al). Under faster cooling than Figure 50 specimen, the structure has been transformed, with the formation of martensitic needles mixed with pearlite (trostite). Etchant not reported. 50×. Source: Ref 8 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 37 Liner that was made by infiltrating an open grid of tin bronze (98Cu-2Sn) with molten lead-base babbitt (SAE 16). The grid was made by sintering a mixture of copper and copper-tin alloy powders on a steel backing strip. The excess babbitt formed an overlay. NH 4 OH + H 2 O 2 . Original More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 53 High-leaded tin bronze liner (SAE 485); prealloyed powder, sintered on a steel backing strip (bottom), cold rolled, resintered. Copper grains; intergranular lead (black). See also Fig. 54 . NH 4 OH + H 2 O 2 . Original magnification 100× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 13 Atomized bronze (92Cu-8Sn) filter powder (−40+60 mesh). Surface of copper is coated with tin, which is partly alloyed, forming intermetallics and some α-bronze. Arrows show depth of tin diffusion. As-polished. 645× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 54 Same as Fig. 53 but etched, showing well-sintered α-bronze grains. Cross-hatched grains result from residual scratches and etching. K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . 65× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 55 Bronze (Cu-10Sn, 6.4 g/cm 3 ) pressed at 140 to 205 MPa (10 to 15 tsi), sintered (conditions not known), and sized for tolerances. Mostly all α-bronze grains. Gray areas are pores. Arrows indicate clusters of small grains that have not grown into larger α grains. K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . 180× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 56 Bronze (Cu-10Sn) with 4% graphite pressed at 165 to 205 MPa (12 to 15 tsi) to 6.4 g/cm 3 , sintered 15 min at 845 °C (1550 °F), and sized. Arrows GP show graphite in pores surrounded by darker gray epoxy resin; arrow G, graphite flake in the matrix. Arrows S surround a small grain More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 5 Aluminum bronze (ASTM B 148, grade 9C) heat treated to form Al 4 Cu 9 . Pre-etched with aqueous 10% (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 and color etched with Beraha's lead sulfide reagent. 500×. (G.F. Vander Voort) More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 21 Cu-11.8Al (aluminum bronze), heat treated, with martensite in the microstructure. (a) Bright-field illumination. (b) Dark-field illumination. (c) Differential interference-contrast illumination. (d) Crossed polarized light illumination. As-polished. 200× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 4 Microstructure of replicated bronze-making slag. Visible are spheroids of metallic bronze, rhomboidal tin oxide crystals, and spherical voids in a glassy silicate matrix. Unetched More