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brittle-matrix composite failures

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... environmental attack. The silicon bond coat serves two equally important functions in current state-of-the art EBCs: enhancement of adhesion to the ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) and oxidation protection of the substrate (by gettering oxygen). With increasingly higher demands for high engine-operating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of particle-matrix decohesion or cracking of second-phase particles; microvoids and the associated particles are shown at high magnification in Fig. 4 . The process of microvoid formation and coalescence involves considerable localized plastic deformation and requires the expenditure of a large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Fig. 1 ). The graph of mixed behavior was created based on results (rounded silica sand of 0.1 to 0.3 mm, or 0.004 to 0.01 in., diameter; 61 m/s, or 200 ft/s, velocity) obtained for WC-15wt%Co cemented carbide consisting of brittle tungsten carbide grains and ductile cobalt matrix ( Ref 49 ). Erosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) matrix. This results in a composite HV for the alloy of between 4.9 and 5.9 GPa (710 and 855 ksi). However, in spite of the relatively high hardness of the composite structure, the balls tend to wear at a rate equivalent to that of the ferrite or pearlite matrix. The abrasive forces that occur during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosion weakens the role of reinforcements in composites and multiphase alloys. When composite materials and multiphase alloys are worn in corrosive environments, preferential corrosion of the matrix surrounding the reinforcement particles or hard second phases in the solid material microstructure weakens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is a property of the near-surface material developed in situ ( Ref 12 ). A different subsurface region system develops when a brittle or nondeforming matrix is subjected to repetitive impact ( Ref 12 ). A white layer still forms, but the base material tends to remain undeformed ( Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as AISI D2 tool steel, chromium white cast iron, and WC-Co, and with hardnesses in excess of 600 kg/mm 2 display a very high abrasion resistance (even mild wear); in fact, abrasive wear in these materials is mainly restricted to the metallic matrix, whereas the hard phases resist the abrasive action...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and are also referred to as triple-point or grain-corner cracks in the literature. Wedge-type cracks form at triple points due to grain-boundary sliding and can be promoted by decohesion at interfaces between grain-boundary precipitates and the matrix. High stresses and lower temperatures promote...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galling at higher contact pressures against different steel sheet materials ( Ref 64 , 146 ). At critical pressures, the plasticized sheet material slides along the tool (causing accelerated wear of the tool matrix), which, in turn, promotes extensive sheet-material transfer and lump formation. In this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and treatment chemicals Microorganisms can also promote environmentally assisted cracking by accelerating the entry of hydrogen into the metal matrix and by producing metabolites that accelerate crack growth. Biological failure analysis is inevitably part of a more general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failures may occur in components subjected to fluctuating (time-dependent) loading as a result of progressive localized permanent damage described by the stages of crack initiation, cyclic crack propagation, and subsequent final fracture after a given number of load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... aggressive with respect to SCC. Early investigations into these failures revealed that the composition of the water being used in the boilers created the caustic environment needed for SCC to occur. At that time, chemistry of the water used in boilers was not controlled to the same degree as it is today...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Stress-strain behavior of reinforced and unreinforced ceramics. Fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites avoids the brittle catastrophic fracture characteristic of monolithic materials. However, the matrix cracking stress of reinforced ceramics is generally lower than the fracture stress of monolithic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-reinforced composites. Other considerations include the influence of matrix cracking, or “first ply failure,” on design. In particular, first ply failure may occur far below ultimate failure in a multidirectional laminate. The effect of first ply failure on the usefulness of the laminate in the structure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... understood, but weak interfacial bondings seem to be a precondition for producing tough CCCs ( Ref 44 , 137 ). Bonds between fiber and matrix that are too good induce excessive damage and promote fast crack propagation through the fibers. The composite fails in a brittle mode, and no strengthening effect is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the ductile fracture, interlaminar failure, transgranular cleavage and fracture, tension-overload fracture, longitudinal and transverse cracking, fiber splitting, stress rupture, and low-cycle fatigue of these composites. ductile to brittle transition fractograph metal-matrix composites...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... because the failure of even several fibers results in the redistribution of load onto other fibers rather than a catastrophic failure of the part. Glass-fiber-reinforced organic-matrix composites are the most familiar and widely used, and have had extensive application in industrial, consumer, military...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... materials property characterization. Throughout their life cycle, composites are susceptible to the formation of many possible defects, primarily due to their multiple-step production process, nonhomogeneous nature, and brittle matrix. These defects include delaminations, matrix cracking, fiber fracture...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The structural efficiency of a composite structure is established by its joints and assembly. Adhesive bonding, mechanical fastening, and fusion bonding are three types of joining methods for polymer-matrix composites. This article provides information on surface treatment and the...