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branching polymers

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of polyisoprene Structure Within the Molecule The structure within the molecule may involve stereoisomerism, branching, molecular weight and distribution, end groups and impurities, and copolymerization. Stereoisomers The polymer structures illustrated in Tables 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 may appear...
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 12 4137 steel (UNS G41370) bolts (hardness, 42 HRC) that failed by hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking caused by acidic chlorides from a leaking polymer solution. (a) Overall view of failed bolts. (b) Longitudinal section through one of the failed bolts in (a) showing multiple More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... , and melt processing via extrusion generally correlates most closely with M z . Fig. 3 Generic illustration of molecular weight distribution Molecular Architecture Polymer molecules can be linear, branched, or crosslinked into a three-dimensional network. In the bulk, polymers can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... literature and can be divided into two major groups: high-molecular-weight, low-solids materials and low-molecular-weight, high-solids materials. Two factors are particularly important to good performance in this class of coatings: the branching or cross-link density of the condensation polymer employed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... themselves into an orderly structure. In general, simple polymers (with little or no side branching) crystallize very easily. Crystallization is inhibited in heavily cross-linked (thermoset) polymers and in polymers containing bulky side groups. There are three categories of polymers: thermoplastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and this strongly affects the thermal, mechanical, and rheological properties of plastics as shown in Table 4 . Polymer size is quantified primarily by molecular weight (MW), molecular-weight distribution (MWD), and branching. Effect of molecular weight on polyethylene Table 4 Effect of molecular weight...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 3 ). When linear or branched thermoplastic polymers are exposed to large enough quantities of solvents having solubility parameters within approximately ±2 H of that of the polymer, dissolution of the polymer will occur. In smaller quantities, these solvents will be adsorbed by the polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... described the load dependence of the friction coefficient of polymers ( Ref 10 ). The friction coefficient passes the minimum, which corresponds to transition from elastic contact (the descending branch of the curve) to plastic (the ascending branch). It is important that the load can vary the temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... its decomposition temperature ( Ref 2 ). In contrast, thermoplastics, which consist of high-molecular-weight linear or branched polymer chains (not crosslinked), can be reshaped with the application of heat and pressure ( Ref 2 ). In relation to composite materials, the distinction between these types...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., although there are occasional exceptions to this rule. The yield strength of PP decreases when molecular weight increases. Studies of morphology indicate that high molecular weight and branching reduce crystallinity. Polymers with high intermolecular interaction, such as hydrogen bonding, do not require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and alcohols must be used for linear polyester manufacturing. A specific amount of tri- or higher functional monomers must be used in the manufacture of branched polyesters ( Ref 3 ). Depending on the choice of components used to build up the polyester, the polymer morphology may be widely changed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... The arrangement of the crystallites within the amorphous phase or the polymer morphology is also important to the resistance of fatigue. For example, branched versions of polyethylene offer decreased resistance, while very high molecular weight versions of polyethylene with an enhanced level of tie molecules...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... over each other, and failure occurs by separation of chains rather than by breaking of interchain bonds. This type of motion is relatively easy where secondary bonds join molecules. However, most polymers have side branches or bulky side groups on their chains and are not strictly linear. Side branches...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... such as stability, adhesion, polymer branching, or sites for cross linking with external cross-linking agents. The functional monomers are typically higher in cost than the building-block monomers and also add cost to the resin composition. Acrylic polymers often contain some nonacrylic co-monomers, used because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...Abstract Abstract An alkyd is an ester-based polymer derived from the polycondensation reaction of polyhydric alcohol and polybasic acid. This article provides useful information on the chemistry, production, coating formulations, modification, commercial products, and application methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006854
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... these two approaches based on the suitable materials for these constructs and the fabrication processes used to manufacture them. The materials are grouped into polymers, metals, and hydrogels. The article also summarizes the commonly used 3D printing techniques for these materials, as well as cell types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... or oligomer. The imide monomers or oligomers are also derived from the typical condensation reaction to form the imide group, but polymer formation stems from the addition reaction. For completeness, the chemistry of both types and process conditions to fabricate articles are described in this article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... increases, the structure becomes more rigid and the strength becomes greater, as shown in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 (a) Simulated cross linked (networked or three-dimensional) structure. (b) Simulated linear polymer molecule. (c) Simulated structure of a branched polymer Polymers are repeating chains...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... will increase rapidly, although there are occasional exceptions to this rule. The yield strength of polypropylene (PP) decreases when molecular weight increases. Studies of morphology indicate that high molecular weight and branching reduce crystallinity. Polymers with high intermolecular interactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It covers the processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also...