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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...–12.5 μm (0.1–0.5 mil) >70 (a) Alloy steels, tools steels Produces a thin carbide (TiC) case for high resistance wear; temperature may cause distortion Boriding Diffused boron, boron compounds 400–1150 (750–2100) 12.5–50 μm (0.5–2 mils) 40–70 Alloy steels, tool steels Produces a hard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... implantation and laser surface processing. Surface hardening techniques, namely, nitriding, carburizing, boriding, and flame hardening, performed to improve the resistance of stainless steel alloys are also reviewed. acid cleaning acid descaling alkaline cleaning boriding buffing carburizing...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Nucleation during solidification is a thermally activated process involving a fluctuational growth in the sizes of clusters of solids. The article describes nucleation phenomenon such as homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. It discusses various grain refinement models, such as carbide-boride...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article provides crystallographic and engineering data for single oxide ceramics, zirconia, silicates, mullite, spinels, perovskites, borides, carbides, silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon-nitride ceramics, diamond, and graphite. It includes data on crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., oxide ceramics, non-silica forming nitrides, carbides, and borides. The performance of environmental barrier coatings by material type is also discussed. The article also explains the effects of oxidation and corrosion on the mechanical properties of ceramic-matrix composites. It concludes with...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hardfacing alloys can be divided into pearlitic steels, austenitic (manganese) steels, martensitic steels, high-alloy irons, and austenitic stainless steel. The types of nonferrous hardfacing alloys include cobalt-base/carbide-type alloys, laves phase alloys, nickel-base/boride-type alloys, and bronze type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... temperature range, 1700 to 2200 °C (3092 to 3992 °F), refractory carbides and borides have been used for short time periods. Coating deposition techniques that have been used include pack cementation, CVD, and slurry processes. Coating architectures are normally built using combinations of these techniques...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The second key is to realize that boron (boride particles) is an extremely powerful nucleant in all casting alloys. Boron is much more effective than titanium. Thus, it makes more sense to say that grain refinement is accomplished with boron. It then becomes a question of which combination of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... can be accomplished using a gaseous, liquid, or plasma medium. The plasma technique (ion nitriding) appears very attractive because the formation of brittle white layers, which are unavoidable in other nitriding processes, can be eliminated or at least minimized. Boriding of die surfaces can also be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperature; ARE, activated reactive evaporation; T m , absolute melting temperature. (a) Compounds: oxides, nitrides, carbides, silicides, and borides of Al, B, Cr, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ni, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr Originally PVD was used to deposit single metal elements by transport of a vapor in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... currents could not be measured between virgin boron monofilaments and 2024 Al or 6061 Al in 3.5 wt% NaCl solutions but were measurable between the aluminum alloys and B MF S that were extracted from the matrix. The extracted boron monofilaments were enveloped by a 4 μm thick layer of aluminum boride...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... strength decreased at lower test temperatures, and at ambient temperature the average joint shear strength was 15.4 MPa (2.2 ksi) ( Ref 126 ). Another study investigated the solid-state diffusion bonding of CCCs by using boride and carbide interlayers ( Ref 127 ). The maximum joint strength was achieved...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... types of solid-phase inclusions in molten aluminum alloys include: Oxides (Al 2 O 3 , MgO) Spinels (Mg 2 AlO 4 ) Borides (TiB 2 , VB 2 , ZrB 2 ) Carbides (Al 3 C 4 , TiC) Intermetallics (MnAl 3 , FeAl 3 ) Nitrides (AlN) Exogenous refractory inclusions (oxides and/or carbides of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... at concentrations greater than 0.1%. It is also known to increase shrinkage tendencies in aluminum-silicon alloys at concentrations greater than 30ppm. Boron combines with other metals to form borides present as solid particles in liquid aluminum, such as AlB 2 and TiB 2 . The titanium diboride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... boundaries into the Inconel 617 base metal. This boron combines with nickel to form nickel boride along the grain boundaries. This second phase can deteriorate the corrosion resistance in some alloys. Fig. 2 UNS N06617 (Inconel 617) brazed with UNS N99620 (AMS 4777) under vacuum at 1038 °C (1900 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... known materials, demonstrated accuracy is generally within ±5% relative in 95% of analyses for major and minor constituents. Low-atomic-number elements (e.g., F, O, N, C, and B) can be measured with useful accuracy as major constituents in fluorides, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and borides. Quantitative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... precipitate throughout the solution. This precipitate consists of nickel and either nickel phosphide or nickel boride. Spontaneous decomposition can be controlled by adding trace amounts of catalytic inhibitors to the solution. These inhibitors are absorbed on any colloidal particles present in the solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... borides. Examples include TiH 2 , TiN, TaC, WC, and Fe 3 C. All of these compounds are extremely hard, and he carbides find application in tool steels and cemented carbide cutting materials. The compound Fe 3 C (cementite) is important in steels. These compounds have a composition of AB 2 that forms...