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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure analyst...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article briefly describes water and steam chemistry, which influence the effect of corrosion in boilers. The appropriate control measures to prevent corrosion in boilers are also presented. The article provides a discussion on the common causes of fluid-side corrosion such as flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The presence of certain impurities in coal and oil is responsible for the majority of fireside corrosion experienced in utility boilers. In coal, the primary impurities are sulfur, alkali metals, and chlorine. The most detrimental impurities in fuel oil are vanadium, sodium, sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article describes the corrosion modes in a waste-to-energy boiler. It discusses the corrosion protection and alloy performance with an emphasis on two main areas of the boiler: furnace water walls and super heaters. waste-to-energy boiler corrosion protection high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Failures in boilers and other equipment taking place in power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source. The general procedure...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 5 The evolution of ferritic steels for boilers. Generations are categorized by the 10 5 h creep-rupture strength at 600 °C. Source: Ref 7 , 10 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 The evolution of austenitic steels for boilers. {#} indicates 10 5 h creep-rupture strength at 600 °C, 2 Mpa. Source: Ref 7 , 10 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 6 Maximum coal ash corrosion rates of alloys in ultrasupercritical boilers as a function of chromium concentration. Squares and diamonds are data from different test loops. More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Maximum coal ash corrosion rates of alloys in ultrasupercritical boilers as a function of Cr+Ni concentration. Squares and diamonds are data from different test loops. More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 4 Erosion- and corrosion-attacked tubes of a biomass-fired boiler pipe panel. Sample courtesy of Häuser & Co. GmbH, Duisburg, Germany. More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 15 Creep-rupture strengths of various boiler tube steels at 600 °C (1110 °F). Source: Ref 21 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 16 100,000-h creep-rupture strength of various steels used in boiler tubes. TB12 steel has as much as five times the 100,000-h creep-rupture strength of conventional ferritic steels at 600 °C (1110 °F). This allows an increase in boiler tube operating temperature of 120 to 130 °C (215 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 9 Estimated design allowable stresses (Section VIII of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) as a function of temperature for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, standard 9Cr-1Mo, 2 1 4 Cr-1Mo steel, and 304 stainless steel. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 37 Short-term and rapid overheating of a steel boiler tube (reheater, superheater, or similar—source unknown) resulted in a longitudinal “fish-mouth” rupture. The tube had experienced elevated temperatures (455 to >730 °C, or 850 to >1350 °F) where the metal strength is markedly More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 1 Simplified water path in a large supercritical utility boiler, with a single reheat step More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 2 Schematic of a supercritical sliding pressure Benson boiler, Tachibana-Wan No. 2, 25.0 MPa/600 °C/610 °C/610 °C. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 3 Rankine cycle for a subcritical boiler. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 4 Rankine cycle for a supercritical boiler. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 22 Typical kraft recovery boiler used in the wood pulp industry. This is a modern, single-drum design, with the steam drum located outside the gas passage. Most boilers built prior to 1990 incorporated a generating bank, with an upper steam drum and lower mud drum, in place of the boiler More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 24 Cross section through a studded carbon steel boiler tube, showing reduction in dimensions of the studs that occurs in operation. Note the loss of wall thickness in the tube around the entire fireside circumference, including the crotch of the tube near the membranes. More