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blast furnace technology

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... annealing process blast furnace technology cold rolling controlled rolling hot rolling ironmaking practices liquid steel processing operations solid steel processing operations steelmaking practices thermomechanical processing OVER THE LAST THIRTY YEARS, remarkable advances have been made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... available for scale prevention in open-fired furnaces. This article describes two stop-off technologies, mechanical masking and copper plating, along with stop-off paints/compounds. Prior to the application of stop-off paints, the part surface of the furnaces should be properly cleaned and dried...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... preheated air blast recuperative hot blast systems duplex electric holders refractory lining water-cooled cupolas emission-control systems THE CUPOLA is basically a simple cylindrical shaft furnace that burns coke for fuel. The heat generated is intensified by the blowing of air through the heated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... cases. Fig. 2 Furnaces for melting of cast iron Figure 3 shows the principal layout of a hot blast cupola furnace and typical energy consumption values for a modern large furnace. The melting rates of such large furnaces are 60 ton/h. Cupola furnaces are used in large foundries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... smelting of iron ore in a bloomery furnace, which yields a slag-metal composite bloom that is hot forged to expel as much slag as possible but inevitably leaves embedded slag inclusions in the microstructure. The alternative indirect method involves smelting iron ore in a blast furnace to produce liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... forethought and planning during the design and installation of a new cupola. Iron flow from a cupola can be made to be intermittent or continuous. The first cupolas were intermittently tapped by opening and closing the taphole as in a blast furnace operation. For intermittent tapping, a refractory plug...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Furnace Technology Significant improvements have been made over the last forty years in blast furnace productivity in terms of hot metal produced per unit volume of the furnace and the amount of fuel used. These improvements are the result of several advancements. Use of high-strength, super-fluxed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... in magnesium content. The open hearth furnace was the mainstay of the scrap-remelting business for over 50 years, but as the application of aluminum became more widespread and diverse, the need for effective and efficient recycling technology grew rapidly. The corresponding growth and diversification...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., fine ore is unsuitable for several pyrometal-lurgical processes, such as the blast furnace smelting. Particle size reduction is achieved by two- or three-stage procedures referred to as crushing and grinding; the combination of the two is known as comminution. Three basic types of crushing and grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... ingredients of iron in the form of iron ore, coke, and lime, which are fed into a blast furnace to produce molten iron. The molten iron is mixed with recycled steel scrap and further processed in a basic oxygen furnace to make steel. The electric arc furnace melts recycled steel scrap. The molten steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the various techniques for removing contaminants in the surface preparation of steel for hot-dip coatings: wet cleaning methods, including alkaline cleaning, electrolytic cleaning, chemical pickling, and electrolytic pickling; flame cleaning and furnace...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Ferrous scrap specifications ISRI code No. Item Specification Basic oxygen, electric furnace, and blast furnace grades 200 No. 1 heavy melting steel Wrought iron and/or steel scrap 6.4 mm ( 1 4 in.) and more in thickness 203 No. 2 heavy melting steel Wrought iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... between 60 and 70% of total refractory production. Steel is produced by both integrated and mini mills. Integrated mills use blast furnaces to convert iron ore to iron, coupled with a basic oxygen furnace to remove silicon metal and carbon to produce steel. Mini mills use an electric arc furnace and melt...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Traditional ceramics, one of two general classes, are commonly used in high-volume manufacturing to make building materials, household products, and various industrial goods. Although there is a tendency to equate traditional ceramics with low technology, sophisticated processes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract High-pressure die casting is a fast method for the net shape manufacturing of parts from nonferrous alloys. This article reviews the automation technologies for the different stages or steps of the process. These steps include liquid metal pouring, injection, solidification, die open...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of flow of the molten metal to help prevent the transfer of slag into the molds during pouring. Dams are the projections rising from the bottom of a launder. Weirs are projections coming down into the top of the pour stream. Launders are used in the tapping of blast furnaces (several hundred in 30 min...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... metal, iron from a blast furnace, and scrap. Oxygen is then blown into the furnace; the oxygen reacts with carbon, impurities, and a small amount of the iron to produce heat, which melts the scrap. Without the scrap, the furnace would have to be cooled by other means. Thus, the use of scrap simplifies...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... level and refining time, and it produces faster melting of the batch. Waste slag from copper melting and blast-furnace dust has been used to prepare belite clinkers and cements. Waste produced from the electroplating process can be used as a secondary source of raw materials for silicate production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Direct-Current Plasma Nitriding (1970–1980) The first industrial-designed-sized furnaces by Klöckner Ionon were cold-walled furnaces that used water to cool the furnace walls. In comparison to other nitriding technologies, the plasma method offered significant advantages of lower operating costs...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... torch and (b) transferred arc plasma torch In a nontransferred plasma torch, the gas is the only resistive element that generates heat. Nontransferred arcs are desirable for hot gas contact in shaft heaters, melters (cupolas), and reactors such as blast furnaces. This mode is suitable...