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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... near the Chicago O'Hare International Airport. Courtesy of Tnemec Company, Inc. These structures need to function and maintain their aesthetic appeal for a long time. The FEVE-based coatings offer this protection. The demand for longer-life coatings was the driving force behind the development...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... producing ring blanks and the various types of blanking and rolling tools used in ring rolling process. The article concludes with a discussion on rolled ring tolerances and machining allowances. ancillary operations automatic radial-axial multiple-mandrel ring mills blanking four-mandrel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... these five operations are done in sequence to develop the complete outline of the blank and to separate it from the sheet, strip, or coil stock. Defined as the cutting off of excess material from the periphery of a workpiece, trimming usually is performed in dies. Similar to blanking, it often is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Cold heading is typically a high-speed process where a blank is progressively moved through a multi-station machine. This article discusses various cold heading process parameters, such as upset length ratio, upset diameter ratio, upset strain, and process sequence design. It describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account on forming operations (blanking, piercing, press-brake forming, contour rolling, deep drawing, cold forming, and hot forming) of various nonferrous metals, including aluminum alloys, beryllium, copper and its alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Thread rolling is a cold-forming process for producing threads or other helical or annular forms by rolling the impression of hardened steel dies into the surface of a cylindrical or conical blank. Methods that use cylindrical dies are classified as radial infeed, tangential feed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... treatments used in developing the properties of the prealloyed powder forged materials: case carburizing, blank carburizing, and through-hardening (quenching and tempering). Case carburizing was applied to materials with a nominal core carbon content of 0.20 to 0.25%. Blank carburizing is intended to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... particularly deleterious for beverage can production, since the two main ears under 0°/180° cannot withstand the hold-down pressure supporting the blank during can forming without some circumferential flow and pinching. The resulting pinched ears tend to jam the body maker during subsequent redrawing and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...; however, if dilution is not appropriate, an alternative sample-introduction technique can be used (see the section “Electrothermal Vaporization” in this article). Instrument calibration involves standard solution preparation (with a minimum of three different concentrations and one blank...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... irrelevant. In the hypothetical experiment, it is assumed that a component can be produced under ideal conditions, t is: A component with absolutely homogeneous chemical composition and homogeneous initial microstructure Without any texture A blank component without any residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 10.8 mm (0.425 by 0.425 in.) square (for impact testing) were then cut from forged billets. These specimens were used for heat treatment. Three heat treatments were used in developing the properties of the prealloyed powder forged materials: case carburizing, blank carburizing, and through hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... extremum work criterion has also been developed ( Ref 22 ). The ideal forming theory has been successfully applied for sheet-forming processes to optimize flat blanks ( Ref 23 , Ref 24 , Ref 25 ) and also for bulk forming in steady and nonsteady flows ( Ref 26 , 27 ). Nonlinear FEMs are becoming very...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... important problem may be created simply by attaching the riser, because the new riser/casting configuration will have its own solidification pattern, sometimes with unintended results. This is illustrated in Fig. 25 , in which the attachment of a side riser at the center of the rim of a gear blank...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the overall development of the finite element method (FEM) and its contribution to the materials forming industry. It presents an overview of FEM methodologies and applications in the order of their usage in typical manufacturing (bulk forming process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... it is preceded by other operations such as blanking, drawing, piercing, and bending. Coining is often the final operation in a progressive-die sequence, although blanking or trimming, or both, frequently follow coining. Development of Detail in the Workpiece . In coining dies, the prepared blank...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... provide flash of uniform size around the periphery of the forging. The design of flash for a radially symmetrical forging is relatively simple, as is exemplified by the gear blank illustrated in Fig. 3 . Such symmetry is characteristic of hammer and press forged gear blanks, wheels, disks, and plates of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... blanks suitable for striking. These blanks are softer than rolled blanks because they are produced from high-purity materials. Therefore, they can be coined at relatively low pressures, and it is possible to achieve greater relief depth with reduced die wear. In another procedure, an organic binder...