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blackheart malleable iron

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract Malleable iron, like ductile iron, possesses considerable ductility and toughness because of its combination of nodular graphite and low-carbon metallic matrix. There are two basic types of malleable iron: blackheart and whiteheart. This article focuses on the blackheart...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... iron: blackheart and whiteheart. This article considers only the blackheart type and describes the metallurgical factors of malleable iron. It discusses the mechanical properties of pearlitic and martensitic malleable irons. The article provides additional information on the properties and heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... to produce temper carbon involves heating a white cast iron for an extended period of time (up to about 60 h) at a temperature of 960 °C (1760 °F). Most of the malleable iron that is produced by this technique is called blackheart malleable iron, while some malleable iron (called whiteheart malleable iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... (depending on the cooling rate after annealing).The temper carbon is not truly spherical (as in ductile iron) but consists of irregularly shaped aggregates ( Fig. 1 ). Most of the malleable iron is produced by this technique and is called blackheart malleable iron, while some malleable iron (called white...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0009206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... in the decomposition of Fe3C and the formation of temper graphite. The basic solid state reaction is: (Eq 7) Fe 3 C → Austenite + Gr Most of the malleable iron is produced by this technique and is called blackheart malleable iron. The final microstructure consists of graphite in a matrix...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., pearlitic malleable, and martensitic malleable irons. There are two types of ferritic malleable iron, “blackheart,” and “whiteheart.” Only the blackheart type is produced in the United States. This material has a matrix of ferrite with interspersed nodules of temper carbon. “Cupola malleable iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., including chemical composition, cooling rate, and heat treatment. The article describes some basic principles of cast iron metallurgy. It discusses the main effects of the chemical composition of ductile iron and compacted graphite (CG) iron. The composition of malleable irons must be selected in such a way...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the fatigue and fracture behavior of various types of cast iron, such as gray iron, ductile iron, malleable iron, compacted graphite iron, and white iron, as a function of chemical composition, matrix microstructure, and graphite morphology. cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of Europe and foresaw a potential market for such a material; he started a series of experiments to find out how to produce malleable iron. Because of the chemical composition of the pig iron used, Boyden found the fractures of his specimens “black and grey” (blackheart) because of the presence of free...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for such a material; he started a series of experiments to find out how to produce malleable iron. Because of the chemical composition of the pig iron used, Boyden found the fractures of his specimens “black and grey” (blackheart) because of the presence of free carbon after the heat treatment process. In 1831, he...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... … 42 Malleable iron 22 Blackheart ferritic 2.51 1.01 0.56Mn, 0.183S, 0.047P 49 46 65 23 2.51 1.06 1.16Mn, 0.159S, 0.0.45P 44 41 65 Alloy iron 24 Ni-Resist D2 (ductile) … … Austenitic 18–22Ni 13.4 … 11 25 Nicrosilal (lamellar graphite) 1.81 6.42...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ductility), which can be tempered (high strength and toughness). Standard or ferritic malleable iron, also called blackheart ( Fig. 4 ) (ASTM A 47, Ref 1 ), possesses a matrix of ferrite, while pearlitic malleable iron (ASTM A 220, Ref 2 ) matrices are typically tempered martensite or, less commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in the furnace is of an oxidizing nature, some of the carbon will be oxidized, producing a white-heart malleable iron that is considered weldable. If the atmosphere is of a reducing nature, the entire amount of carbon is retained, and the material is a blackheart malleable iron, considered unweldable...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... by the crucible process at historic Valley Forge Foundry. 1825—Aluminum, the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, is isolated from aluminum chloride by Denmark's Hans Oerstad. 1830s—Seth Boyden of Newark, N.J., produces the first blackheart malleable iron in the United States. 1832—Nickel-bronze...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of ledeburite formed and the width of the HAZ. Fig. 13 Discontinuous white iron colonies obtained in the HAZ of blackheart malleable iron welded using a “quench welding” technique with a nickel-base electrode. 180×. Source: Ref 21 Fusion Zone of a Single-Pass Weld Transformations in Single-Pass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... it is possible to limit both the amount of ledeburite formed and the width of the HAZ. Fig. 18 (a) Schematic showing the location of the partially melted zone and associated phase diagram for a cast iron. Adapted from Ref 7 . (b) White iron colonies obtained in the heat-affected zone of blackheart...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... by ensuring that the specimen is continuously flooded with liquid coolant during abrasive machining, particularly those involving high speeds. Dry, mechanized abrasion processes should be avoided. Abrasion Damage in Gray Iron Cast irons are an important group of alloys for which a purpose...