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black-box modeling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... an outline of the principles and achievements of each of the various microstructural models, including black-box modeling, gray-box modeling, white-box modeling, and hybrid modeling. black-box modeling gray-box modeling hybrid modeling microstructure white-box modeling THE BENEFITS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Listing and Black Box Modeling Using the activity diagram and the list of customer needs, a function structure for the product can be formulated ( Fig. 6 ). A function structure is defined as an input-output model that maps energy, material, and signal flows to a transformed and desired state...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... film interliners used to prevent the prepreg from sticking together must be removed before stacking. A mechanized system to convert plies in a nest to fully stacked lay-ups is being developed ( Fig. 8 ). Steps in the operation of this system are as follows: Vacuum is drawn in the box. The tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the “black art” of making high-performance advanced composite molds and fixtures has evolved from company proprietary methods to more conventional industry standards. The advent of low-temperature curing prepregs for high-temperature service has changed the course of the advanced composite tooling industry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... for the solution of questions through computer models that use computational techniques or CAE. The range of techniques varies from queuing theory models used to predict flow of materials through a manufacturing plant to finite element models to predict stresses, heat transfer, or temperature distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... rendition when images are printed. There are many other color representation models ( Ref 2 ) that are beyond the scope of the present text. Two of them are briefly discussed here. The CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) model, used for printing, is discussed in more detail in the section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of these designs is the Box-Behnken designs ( Ref 17 ). They are formed by combining 2 k factorials with incomplete block designs. More information about central composite designs and Box-Behnken designs can be found in Ref 18 . Measures of Merit for Evaluating Experimental Designs Selecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... with different configurations (e.g., either two- or three-sided heating configurations in box-type furnaces). Medium: The atmosphere in the furnace is either protective gas or other heat treating gas (e.g., endothermic gas for carburization). There is a fan to circulate the gas in the furnace where the gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... from ASTM International A 53 “Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless” ASTM International 100 Bar Harbor Dr. P.O. Box C700 West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 www.astm.org A 105 “Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel, and Piping Components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., with (a) the very small box straddling the dendrite tip, shown within the offset box (red in the Online Edition), (b) the offset box and its relation to the dendritic structure of Fig. 1(a) (green in the Online Edition), and (c) the gray-scale region (blue in the Online Edition). Note that the scale of the REV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Transparency Neural networks are sometimes referred to as black boxes, presumably because those who use them cannot access the mathematical functions that describe the relationship between the inputs and outputs. Their mysterious nature is compounded by making inappropriate comparisons to biological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... cosmetic design features, such as an integral step pad in a pick-up truck fender or header ports in a hood. Additionally, the design and processing knowledge and expertise lies mainly at the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) level, hence limiting “black box” designs at the tier one supplier level...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dynamic recrystallization simulations is more difficult, and artifacts of visualization (but not state variables) can be introduced ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 5 Recrystallization modeling. (a) Original undeformed cellular automaton (CA) grain structure in gray and the recrystallized grains in black. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... at 540 °C (1000 °F) for 20 min. Numbers in boxes near time scale indicate total precipitation enthalpy (Δ H ) in J/g. Circled numbers indicate Vickers hardness (HV1) after aging, as follows: alloy 6060 aged at 25 °C (75 °F) for 48 h plus 180 °C (355 °F) for 4 h; alloys 6005A and 6063 aged at 25 °C (75 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and penetration ( Ref 7 ). Chromite sand is black and angular, with high refractoriness and low thermal expansion. It has good chilling power, so it is used when a rapid solidification rate is required, particularly for steel casting ( Ref 8 ). Zircon Sand Zircon is a zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) derived...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... 10–15 55–57 131–135 D: 87–88 TangoBlackPlus, TangoPlus Black, clear 0.8–1.5 0.1–0.2 … … 170–220 … … A: 26–28 Agilus30 Black, clear 2.4–3.1 0.4–0. 5 … … 220–270 … … A: 30–35 3D Systems Visijet CR-BK Black 37–48 5–7 1800–2500 261–363 5–11 48–49 118–120 D: 78–83...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Age A history incursion in any subject matter starts with the “who was the first to…?” query. Thus, we should wonder who poured the first casting and how did this casting look? It appears that the birthplace of metals can be traced with some accuracy to the area north of the Black Sea...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in the top region. Magnification in (b) reveals the dendritic microstructure of the alloy, with an interdendritic black region corresponding to a eutectic microstructure that is not resolved at this scale. The size of the highlighted square would be typical of the representative elementary volume used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... is possible between elongated columnar grains located in the bottom two-thirds of the casting and the isotropic equiaxed grains in the top region. Magnification in (b) reveals the dendritic microstructure of the alloy, with an interdendritic black region corresponding to a eutectic microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., copper-copper sulfate reference electrode. Source: Ref 30 Indicator minerals found as corrosion products in external corrosion scenarios under disbonded polyethylene tape wrap coating on buried pipelines and in laboratory soil box tests Table 3 Indicator minerals found as corrosion products...