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birefringence

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes characterization of materials and analysis of optical components. This article focuses on procedures for testing various characteristics of optical components, including transmission and haze, yellowness, refractive index, birefringence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... shown in Fig. 1 . (a) Micrograph showing the matrix strains in the composite after impact. The arrows indicate areas of strain birefringence in the matrix. Transmitted polarized light, full wave plate, 20× objective. (b) Hackle formation in the interlayer region. Transmitted polarized light, full wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... be used for less critical microscopy than examination of ultrathin sections. Control the thickness of the thin section or polymer film. A specimen such as a polyamide with very fine crystal features (i.e., for example, less than 15 μm) and high birefringence requires ultrathin sections for optimal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Post-Stress-Relaxation Measurement Uniaxial Conditions Biaxial Conditions Triaxial Conditions Mechanical Gages Electrical Resistance Strain Gages Brittle Coatings Optical Gages Laser Methods Birefringent Methods Determination is Made of Determination is Made...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in a platelike component such as the wall of a pressure vessel. From Eq 3(d) and (e) , the relative shear wave birefringence is: (Eq 16) B = c s,np − c s , nn c s = σ 2 μ [ 1 + n 4 μ ] For practical purposes, c s can be considered as the average...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or short angled rods, and the epoxy resin as first-order magenta. Birefringent materials are observed throughout the structure, including randomly oriented polyester scrim fibers in the film adhesive and surfacing film, filler materials in the surfacing film, and the Nomex (E.I. du Pont de Nemours...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by stress birefringence. It may be important to determine temperature versus viscosity in order to fabricate a glass and allow residual stresses to be either relieved during annealing or incorporated during tempering. Electrical, mechanical, chemical durability, and optical properties can be characterized...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., subsurface fatigue plays an increasingly important role. This has been clearly revealed by birefringent techniques ( Ref 74 ) applied to implant wear by procedures originally outlined by Gibbons ( Ref 75 ). There is much interest in the prospects for alternative structural materials, such as composites ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the counterface after wear. Fig. 2 Micrographs of oriented PTFE films on the counterface. (a) PTFE transfer film on a glass slide. The film thickness varies between 50 and 500 nm, and sometimes it can show a lumpy feature when the sliding test is carried out at high loads. The film is highly birefringent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... oxides High permittivity and breakdown voltage Controlled deformation in an applied field Capacitors Actuators PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconium titanate) High-purity oxides Coprecipitated oxides Metal alkoxide-based coatings Change of birefringence with applied field Controlled deformation...