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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the fundamentals of tribology. It describes the advantages, disadvantages, and applications of pin-on-disk method, which is the most commonly used configuration for testing biomaterials and for the reproducible measurement of friction and wear. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... reviews tests, such as scratch test and in vitro fretting corrosion test, developed to investigate the aspects of mechanically assisted corrosion of metallic biomaterials. cobalt-base biomedical alloys electrochemical behavior in vitro fretting corrosion test iron-base biomedical alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... biomaterials in surgical implant applications, such as orthopedic, cardiovascular surgery, and dentistry. It addresses the key issues related to simulation of the in vivo environment, service conditions, and data interpretation. Theses include frequency of dynamic loading, electrolyte chemistry, applicable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... engaged as an integral part of the device ecosystem. It discusses the various applications of biomaterials, including orthopedic, cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and dental applications. The article describes the four major categories of biomaterials, such as metals, polymers, glass and ceramics, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article provides the background of biological evaluation of medical devices. It discusses what the ISO 10993 standards require for polymeric biomaterials and presents examples of what qualitative and quantitative tests can be used to satisfy the requirements. The article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... alloys and presents titanium-base biomaterials in a table. Titanium components are produced in wrought, cast, and powder metallurgy (PM) form. The article describes forging, casting, and heat treating of titanium alloys for producing titanium components. Typical mechanical properties of titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... different types of tissue responses to the biomaterial. The article discusses the testing of implant failure, such as in vitro and in vivo assessment of tissue compatibility. biomaterials biomedical devices cardiovascular applications ceramic implants dental applications functionally-graded hip...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... description of metal binding and its effects on metabolic processes. The hypersensitive responses to metal ions are also reviewed. The article concludes with a discussion on possible cancer-causing effects of metallic biomaterials. biocompatibility cancer-causing effects corrosion hypersensitive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Porous coatings are used in the field of joint replacement, particularly in cementless total hip/knee arthroplasty. This article reviews the offerings and biomaterial properties in orthopedic surgery for the contemporary class of highly porous metals. It describes the traditional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... use of biomaterials, defined a widely acknowledged statement for biomaterials in the late 1980s. Williams also addressed the need to reflect the different attributes of materials that had more recently entered the marketplace, for example, the bioresorbable polymers that degrade over time. Williams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... eager to experiment with these materials with the hope of providing even an incremental relief to their patients. Without even the rudimentary understanding of contemporary biomaterial toxicology, several of these early experiments with synthetic plastics for medical applications led to failures, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... materials for at least 2000 years. However, the success of early artificial implants was limited until the mid- to late-19th century, when medical advances improved the potential success rate of implants. Since then, a wide variety of materials, known as biomaterials, have been developed to restore function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... clinical applications glass-ceramics glasses hard tissue attachment hard-tissue response implant materials inert crystalline ceramics mechanical properties physical properties porous ceramics resorbable biomaterials CERAMICS, GLASSES, AND GLASS-CERAMICS have been essential for a long time in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to their preferred use over stainless steel for making removable partial denture frameworks in dentistry as low-cost alternatives to gold-base alloys ( Ref 2 ). This represented one of the earliest uses of a cobalt-chromium alloy as a biomaterial. The excellent corrosion resistance displayed in these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... biomaterial, which necessarily meant that many of its tribological characteristics under physiological conditions were imperfectly understood. Indeed, a comprehensive picture of the biotribological features of this remarkable material is only now emerging ( Ref 34 ). The tensile and physical properties of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... applications, is more resistant than stainless steel but is inferior to titanium. As defined by D.F. Williams in a Consensus Conference on Definitions in Biomaterials Sciences of the European Society for Biomaterials in 1987, biocompatibility refers to “the ability of a material to perform with an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... identical to that of the implant site, that is, muscle, ligament, organ, and so on. This is not observed, however, and remains one of the principal objectives for biomaterial research. The universally “normal” response is to induce a fibrous capsule (scar tissue) containing monocytic cells (usually referred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Plastic (polymeric) biomaterials do not readily chemically degrade in vivo and thus have not been reported in case or group studies as sources of hypersensitivity-type immune responses. This is likely due to the inability of polymeric materials (such as polyethylene) to degrade into small-enough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6