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biomass fuels

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... wind power, hydro power, biomass and biofuels, solar energy, and fuel cells. biomass fuels corrosion protection hydro power renewable energy solar energy solid oxide fuel cells thermal spray applications wind power IN RECENT YEARS, renewable energy has continued to grow strongly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... oxidation of a material at elevated temperature induced by a fused (molten) or solid deposit. The most common deposit in combustion processes is Na 2 SO 4 . The sulfur present in coal or fuel oil yields SO 2 on combustion, which is further partially oxidized to SO 3 . Sodium chloride, either as an impurity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and controlling harmful impurities. In some cases, a liquid fuel that can be substituted for gasoline is required; biomass conversion to ethanol is an example that has been used for a number of years, and this approach appears to be increasing in importance. Liquefaction of coal has also been a research topic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... It provides information on the fuels with chlorine contents used in gasification plants. gasification plants high-temperature corrosion material selection criteria chlorine content synthetic gas coolers long-term performance INTENSIVE DEVELOPMENT of gasification technology has been carried out...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., biomass, and solar are just a few examples of where thermal spray can play a role in renewable energy solutions, in addition to the more traditional fossil fuel areas such as coal, gas, and oil. As medical technology helps to extend human life spans, medical implants will become more common, and thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... by the coal fines and oxidized as a result of the high temperatures. Products of combustion, waste silica, and exhaust gas can erode heat-exchange tubes in a boiler. Burning biomass ( Ref 1 , 2 ) accelerates erosion-corrosion in power plants. Sliding wear can be a challenge on control valves ( Ref 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in most fossil-fuel steam generators are coal, natural gas, and petroleum; nuclear power also supplies significant steam generation. Increasingly, renewable sources such as hydroelectric, wind, geothermal, tide, solar, and biomass have become sources for power generation. Steam Cycle Conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by slime-forming microbes or iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria (referred to as “metal depositors” by the researchers). Other organisms considered include algae that produce dense, thick mats of biomass on sunlit surfaces in cooling towers. These can foster underdeposit attack due to concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... ( SO 4 2 − ) occurs as a result of the combustion of sulfur-containing coal and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as heating oil and diesel fuel. Sulfur combustion products deposit as acid rain, even in nonindustrial areas, because of environmental fallout. In industrial areas, noticeable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Biofouling Control Ship bottoms, buoys, fish farms, stationary fishing nets, water intake pipes, oil platforms, and other structures submerged in water foul with organisms such as barnacles, tube worms, and algae. This biofouling creates problems ranging from reduced fuel efficiency to structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-strength, hard-drawn steel wire used for prestressing concrete pipe has been observed on exposure to laboratory cultures of the hydrogen-producing anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum ( Ref 80 ). Sowards et al. ( Ref 81 ) investigated the impact of microorganisms from an ethanol fuel-production stream...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... been applied by the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) process. Twin-wire arc spray coatings are typically applied 2 mm (80 mils) thick to overcome the porosity inherent in that process and to prevent liquor access to the carbon steel substrate. High-velocity oxyfuel coatings are characteristically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6