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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... free energy of a binary solution. It schematically illustrates the structure of a binary solid solution with interatomic bonds and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from the free-energy curves at a given temperature. The article concludes with information on the construction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... types of commercial alloys. The typical heat treatment of an age-hardening alloy consists of ( Ref 2 ): Solution treating (solutionizing) that results in a homogenous supersaturated solid solution Quenching to a temperature in the two-phase region (generally room temperature) to retain a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... Another disadvantage is the constant diffusivity assumption. However, the constant D solutions tend to be robust, and variations in D of 10% would likely be insignificant compared to scatter in experimental data. In the following, four standard solutions to Fick's second law for binary single-phase...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the dendrite cores, and β′′ precipitates will be prevalent. For longer solutionizing times, copper will diffuse into the dendrite cores, and θ′ will contribute to strengthening. Brief solutionizing times, or rapid cooling from just below the eutectic temperature, can be used to achieve adequate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article begins with the one-component, or unary, diagram for magnesium. The diagram shows what phases are present as a function of the temperature and pressure. When two metals are mixed in the liquid state to produce a solution, the resulting alloy is called a binary alloy. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... article describes the order-disorder transformation that typically occurs on cooling from a disordered solid solution to an ordered phase. It provides a table that lists selected superlattice structures and alloy phases that order according to each superlattice. The article informs that spinodal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Tech Publications , 2002 11. Epler M. , Structures by Precipitation from Solid Solution , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 , p 134 – 139 12. Celotto S. and Bastow T.J. , Study of Precipitation in Aged Binary Mg-Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Boriding is a thermochemical diffusion-based surface-hardening process that can be applied to a wide variety of ferrous, nonferrous, and cermet materials. It is performed on metal components as a solution for extending the life of metal parts that wear out too quickly in applications...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solid solutions wherein the two solid phases intimately coexist. However, the distribution of these two solid phases in the eutectic structure will vary vastly among various binary metallic eutectic systems and will solely depend on the nature of the components that form the system. To further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Cast nickel-base alloys are used extensively in corrosive-media and high-temperature applications. This article briefly reviews the common types of heat treatments of nickel alloy castings: homogenization, stress relieving, in-process annealing, full annealing, solution annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., nickel-manganese alloys, and nickel chromium binary and ternary alloys. It also includes information on the environmental, health, and safety considerations for these nickel-base alloys. health and safety considerations nickel alloy plating nickel-chromium plating nickel-cobalt plating nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... metallurgy processes. In some binary alloys, the corrosion resistance of the solid solution takes on the excellent corrosion properties of the most resistant element, assuming it is present in sufficient concentration. For instance, polycrystalline aluminum may be alloyed with transition metals to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... exist as a solid, liquid, and/or gas, depending on the specific combination of temperature and pressure. It describes the accomplishment of conversion between weight percentage and atomic percentage in a binary system by the use of formulas. The article analyzes the effects of alloying on melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... solidification range of 630–575 °C (1170–1065°F) and are less fluid and have an increased tendency to hot shortness during solidification. With restricted copper and magnesium content at low levels, the alloys are not responsive to solution treatment and aging for strengthening. Binary aluminum-silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... binary phase diagram. It also describes the effects of austenite grain size, and provides useful information on controlling the austenite grain size using the thermomechanical process. austenite austenitizing grain growth steel References 1. Campbell F.C. , Ed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article begins with a discussion on the corrosion characteristics of unalloyed magnesium and two major magnesium alloy systems. It shows the effects of iron and 13 other elements on the saltwater corrosion performance of magnesium in binary alloys with increasing levels of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are described in binary equilibrium diagrams. As noted, second phases are precipitates that form when a solute (i.e., alloying element or impurities) exceeds its solubility limit in a base metal (or so-called solvent). For example, cementite (Fe 3 C) is a second-phase constituent in carbon steel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... points representing the temperatures at which the various alloys finish freezing on cooling or begin melting on heating. The phases in equilibrium across the two-phase field in Fig. 3 (the liquid and solid solutions) are called conjugate phases. Fig. 3 Binary phase diagram showing miscibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... metal alloys dealloying. The current-potential behavior of a binary alloy undergoing selective dissolution is reviewed. The article highlights the four mechanisms required for the formation of porous metals: ionization-redeposition, surface diffusion, volume diffusion, and percolation model of selective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Low-expansion alloys are various binary iron-nickel alloys and several ternary alloys of iron combined with nickel-chromium, nickel-cobalt or cobalt-chromium alloying and are used in applications such as geodetic tape, bimetal strip, glass-to-metal seals, and electronic and radio...