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billets

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... article provides a discussion on electromagnetic systems, eddy-current systems, and magnetic permeability systems for detection of flaws on steel bars. It concludes with a description of nondestructive inspection of steel billets. cracks eddy-current system electromagnetic inspection inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the presses, transportation equipment, and manufacturing processes associated with cogging. It discusses the practical and metallurgical issues encountered during the conversion of ingot to billet. The article explains the use of numerical modeling as part of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... microstructure mill product, such as billets or bars, and secondary working refers to further forging of mill product into final component configurations. billets deformation die materials forging grain structure heating heating practice lubricants microstructure nickel-base alloy NICKEL is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Roll forging is a process for simultaneously reducing the cross-sectional area and changing the shape of heated bars, billets, or plates. This article provides an overview of the process capabilities, production techniques, machines and machine size selection considerations, and types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... products from blooms, billets, and slabs. It describes two methods for shapes or sections: universal rolling and caliber rolling. The article provides information on two-high mills and three-high mills. Specialty mills for thin sheets, namely, the Sendzimir mill and planetary mill, are discussed. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Cold extrusion is a push-through compressive forming process with the starting material (billet/slug) at room temperature. This article provides information on the different types of steels that can be cold extruded. Mechanical presses and hydraulic presses that are specifically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., billet configurations, and metal flow modes of coextrusion. It presents the analytical studies of coextrusion: deformation energy methods, lower-bound (slab) analyses, upper-bound analyses, and finite-element analyses. These studies are used to identify the regime of material properties and process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Hot-rolled steel bars and other hot rolled steel shapes are produced from ingots, blooms, or billets converted from ingots, or from strand cast blooms and billets, and comprise a variety of sizes and cross sections. This article provides a brief discussion on mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hot extrusion is a process in which wrought parts are formed by forcing a heated billet through a shaped die opening. This article discusses nonlubricated and lubricated hot extrusion. The two nonlubricated hot extrusion methods are forward or direct extrusion and backward or indirect...
Book Chapter

By Justin Heimsch
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... reheated to achieve the structures necessary for casting. The second casting process combines billet sawing, reheating, and the actual injecting of material into the mold. The article focuses on these processes and provides information on rheological tests. It discusses some key design concepts used in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., including all operations that convert ingot into general mill products, such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube, and wire. The section on secondary fabrication describes processes such as die forging, extrusion, hot and cold forming, machining, chemical milling, and joining. The article presents a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... processing on structure and properties. The article explains these effects and concludes with a discussion on the applications of the ECAE. equal-channel angular extrusion plastic strain shear deformation tool design THE PRIMARY GOAL of metalworking is to change billet shape and dimensions by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extrusion hydrostatic extrusion intermetallic compounds structural alloys IN HYDROSTATIC EXTRUSION, the billet is extruded through a die via the action of a liquid pressure medium instead of the direct application of the load through a ram. In cases of hydrostatic extrusion, the billet is completely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... niobium niobium alloys refractory metals tantalum tantalum alloys tungsten tungsten alloys REFRACTORY METALS are forged from as-cast ingots, pressed and sintered billets, or billets that have been previously broken down by forging or extrusion. Forgeability depends to some extent on the method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cannot be significantly increased by hot extrusion technology, because of the narrow temperature interval between the extrusion load limiting temperature and the temperature of unacceptable surface quality. Billet temperatures generally range from approximately 300 to 595 °C (575 to 1100 °F), depending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the forming process outcome is the dependent variable. Although there may be several independent variables, many cannot be altered for practical reasons. For example, transfer time of a billet from furnace to the press in a forge shop, important for its temperature distribution, might not be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... produced from shells made by extruding or piercing copper billets. Copper tube and pipe are available in a wide variety of nominal diameters and wall thicknesses, from small-diameter capillary tube to 300 mm (12 in.) nominal-diameter pipe. To a certain extent, dimensions and tolerances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... machine stiffness Ram guidance During forging Workpiece temperature  Flow stress  Scale  Shrinkage Billet or preform volume Lubrication Die temperature Die wear After forging Trimming Heat treatments Cooling process Cleaning process Sizing Finish machining...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... versus temperature Fig. 2 Typical semisolid A356 alloy structure consisting of globular alpha-aluminum surrounded by eutectic Semisolid processing has now been in commercial use for more than 30 years. However, the thixocasting route, requiring production of a billet precursor, has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to reduce the heat transfer during the lubricant application, the billet placement on the die, the actual forging deformation, and during the dwell and ejection operations. The die chill can cause significant underfilling and flow localization in temperature-sensitive workpiece materials such as...