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bifilms

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 5 Unfurling and inflating of bifilms. (a) Simply folded bifilm. (b) Tangled, convoluted bifilm. (c) Overinflation of a bifilm, resulting in a spherical pore. (d) Overinflation of a bifilm later in solidification, resulting in an interdendritic pore More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Analysis of bifilms provides a simple, powerful, and elegant concept to explain many features of the metallurgy of castings. This article describes the effects of bifilms in metals. Mechanisms for the entrainment of bifilms are reviewed. The article describes the effect of furling...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 39 Surface turbulence, acting to fold in a bifilm and bubbles. Source: Ref 28 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 2 SEM image of intermetallics (eutectic silicon and β-iron platelets) nucleated and grown on bifilms, causing the bifilms to straighten and create long central cracks. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of surface turbulence causing the entrainment of bifilms and bubbles. Small entrained bubbles form pores that decorate the bifilm crack “A-B.” Large bubbles, “C” and “D,” are buoyant, creating bubble trails. More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 3 Comparison of x-ray radiographs taken from the same melt of Al-7Si-0.4Mg solidified at the same time under (a) 1 atm (100 kPa), showing diffuse images of furled bifilms, and (b) 0.01 atm (1 kPa), showing unfurled bifilms. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 7 SEM images of the fracture surfaces from a single Al-4.5Cu alloy casting showing (a) the part that suffered a turbulent back-wave and consequent entrained bifilm flattened by dendrite growth and yielding 0.3% elongation. The nearly invisible oxide film covering the whole surface is seen More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... This missed opportunity has cost the casting industry and its customers dearly. In particular, conventional unpressurized and pressurized filling systems (designed to fill molds under gravity) perform poorly, creating generous quantities of entrainment defects (bubbles, bifilms, and sand inclusions...
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Inclusions, entrained via the surface, carrying their coating of surface film and remnant of oxide bifilm trail More
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 7 Typical solidification defects in aluminum-silicon castings. (a) Gas pores. (b) Cavity shrinkages. (c) Bifilms More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 4 Offset step basin showing its capability for detraining bubbles (but not the invisible bifilms, which do not have time to detrain). The basin is best used with a stopper (shown in outline), so the basin can be filled above the minimum height level before pouring begins. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Filling of Iron Castings Gray cast iron is one of the most tolerant of metals when used with poorly designed filling systems. There are good reasons for this. The oxide bifilms that are entrained in even greater numbers during pouring act as substrates for the growth of graphite flakes, so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... bubble trails of various kinds, and folded films (bifilms) that act as cracks and as substrates for the precipitation of many phases. Most failure mechanisms of cast products appear to be associated with bifilms, particularly those introduced during mold filling. This seems to be particularly true...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... connection to the runner. Source: Ref 27 Defect Simulation Foundry engineers put considerable energy and resources into minimizing casting defects that arise from filling the mold. Many articles in this Volume discuss specific defects, such as gas porosity, shrinkage porosity, oxide bifilms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., affecting tensile and mainly fatigue properties ( Ref 4 , 26 , 27 , 28 ). The most common casting defects are gas pores (generally induced by H 2 ), shrinkage, interdendritic cavity shrinkage, oxide films (bifilms), cold drops, and hot tears ( Fig. 7 ). They depend on the casting process; gas porosity...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... considerable amounts of both nonmetallic and metallic impurities. Hydrogen absorption, formation of dross, generation of bifilms, metallic and nonmetallic inclusions, and oxide buildup are inherent characteristics when melting and handling molten aluminum, regardless of the melting and/or holding furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
..., and oxide bifilms. The β-phase has negative effects on tensile strength, elongation to failure, and toughness, and it is more severe with an increase in size and volume fraction. Taghiabadi et al. ( Ref 45 ) studied the effect of iron addition on the wear resistance of a piston alloy (Al-9.4Si-2.5Cu...