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biaxial fatigue testing methods

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... films or sheets, it is advantageous to stretch biaxially to increase tensile modulus and strength in all directions of the film plane. Tensile properties are usually measured at a constant rate of 0.5 cm/min (0.2 in./min). It is recommended by ASTM that the speed of testing be such that rupture occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... biaxial or plane stress. Then, a more fundamental parameter, the J -integral, is used. Almost all standard plane-strain fracture mechanics test specimens can be adapted to SCC testing. Several examples are shown schematically in Fig. 8 . ASTM Standard E 399 describes the allowable specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... stress when the various characteristics of the finishing method being considered can lead to a highly triaxial residual stress field. X-ray or neutron diffraction techniques can be valuable nondestructive tools in quantifying such biaxial and/or triaxial stress fields ( Ref 28 ). X-ray techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue range is extremely low, for example, da / dN = 10 −8 mm/cycle = 4* 10 −10 in/cycle. Given the extensive history of the stress-life method, substantial property data are available, but one should beware of the testing conditions employed in producing older data. The usefulness of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... micrograph. Outside-diameter surface is along right side of micrograph. Note slip banding (arrows) emanating from microcrack. Original magnification: 116 × The analysis revealed that during the hydroforming process, heavy biaxial strains were imparted to the sleeve wall, in the radius between the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article discusses the common testing techniques and process variables for workability prediction. It illustrates the simple and most widely used fracture criterion proposed by Cockcroft and Latham and provides a workability analysis using the fracture limit line. The article describes various workability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the difficulty of simulating defect emissivities and other field conditions in the laboratory. Laboratory tests are often conducted with simple uniaxial stresses applied parallel to the rolling direction, while materials in industrial service are often subjected to complex biaxial or triaxial stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for a number of high-temperature and high-performance applications in industrial, aerospace, and energy conservation sectors. This article focuses on processing, fabrication, testing, and characterization methods of CMCs, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of a cast structure. A workability method that is very similar to the wedge test involves hot forging of so-called double-cone samples whose size is established based on the grain size of the cast microstructure ( Fig. 6a ). Finite-element modeling is often used to establish local deformations for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...° for steel with ν = 0.28. Adapted from Ref 29 Under biaxial stress conditions, a different angular dependence for strain is observed, and it depends on the relative magnitude of the two components of stress. Both uniaxial and biaxial applied stresses affect the resulting domain structure within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...   φ ψ = 0 h k l / ∂ σ a ) Ninth, a stress-free interplanar spacing, d 0 h k l , for a coating may not be readily available in practice. For biaxial stress analysis, the lattice spacing measured at ψ = 0, d   φ ψ = 0 h k l , can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... lead to an erroneous velocity measurement. Rayleigh waves can be used for determination of both uniaxial and biaxial stress states, along with characterization of the stress profile ( Ref 90 , 92 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 96 ). An example of velocity change for increasing tensile strain is shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... all four quadrants of biaxial stress space. A maximum normal stress criterion is sometimes used but again poorly predicts behavior when principal stresses are of opposite sign. Contemporary models to predict plastic deformation use the “flow” (i.e., yield) surface via the plastic potential equation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... constrained by the hard outer shell and undergoes a complex pattern of tensile and compressive plastic deformation. As the block cools further, these complex reversals continue, and the magnitude of the surface and interior plastic strains diminishes. Considering the residual stresses, a biaxial tensile...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... dynamic loading Generate a data file that can be used to draw a structure's critical regions Couple to a number of finite-element programs, including ABAQUS, ANSYS, COSMOS/M, MARC, and MSC/NASTRAN Fig. 5 Weibull plot of alumina three-point bend bars and biaxially loaded disks fractured in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... testing is generally of little value in diagnosing the subtle embrittling effects of hydrogen. Titanium alloys tend to exhibit susceptibility under biaxial or triaxial stress states; therefore, bend tests, cup tests, notched tensile, or loaded precracked fracture toughness tests are generally more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... differential technique, and no stress-free reference standards are required to determine d 0 for the biaxial stress case. The three most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement, the single-angle, two-angle, and sin 2 ψ techniques, assume plane stress at the sample surface and are based on the...