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bending stress

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 80% of the monotonic bending yield stress; solid symbols represent initial stress 50% of the bending yield stress. This alloy has adequate resistance to stress relaxation at temperatures up to 120 °C (250 °F), provided the initial stress is below the elastic limit. Fig. 6 Anisotropic stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and its components are functions of their position on the cut surface. The possibility that the stresses σ and τ are functions of position on the surface must also be permitted (as in the stress field around a stress concentrator or a stress state in bending or torsion). In addition, if the surface is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... rabbits for an exposure period of one year. They used U-bend type specimens made from pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, 316L, Vitallium, and Zircaloy-4 (which is a zirconium-base alloy containing 1.5 wt% Sn, 0.15 wt% Fe, and 0.1 wt% Cr). The stress in the vicinity of the U-bend exceeded σ y . The specimens also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... etched layer may be required. To evaluate the appropriateness of the surface-preparation techniques applied and the surface condition of the component to XRD residual-stress measurements, a complete surface-condition evaluation (four-point bend test) must be performed on a coupon taken from the component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... four-point bending tests. (b) K 45 is the magnitude of the stress necessary to cause an apparent shift in diffraction-peak position of 1° for a 45° angle tilt. The radiations suitable for XRD stress measurement are very “soft,” with low energies (typically 5 to 8 keV) and wavelengths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for determining the residual stress in a coating. In terms of basic principles, it involves measuring the amount of bending in a strip that is due to the deposition of the coating. A formula for calculating the residual stress in an electrodeposited coating was first derived by Stoney ( Ref 1 ) in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Dimensional and shape changes caused by heat treatment have been the subject of scientific and industrial research for a very long time. This article provides an overview of the complexity of distortion and stress generation during heat treatment of steels. It discusses the measurement...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... steel slabs solidification stress finite element formulation arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method braking disks thermomechanical coupling COMPUTATIONAL MODELING of mechanical behavior during solidification is becoming more . Thermal and microstructural simulations alone are insufficient to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... slightly tensile in a 2 mm (0.08 in.) thick specimen (assumed to be caused by bending and distortion in the sample), decreasing rapidly to approximately −220 MPa (−32 ksi) in a 50 mm (2 in.) thick specimen. The surface residual stresses present in a 215 mm (8.5 in.) thick block are also shown in Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied aspects of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... needed on the inner side of a tube bend. Wall thickness of the tubing affects the distribution of tensile and compressive stresses in bending; a thick-wall tube usually bends more readily to a small radius than a thin-wall tube. Table 2 gives the minimum practical inside radii for cold draw bending...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... instrumented bolt ( Fig. 19 ). Four-point bending under constant displacement control and stress intensity produced crack growth. Once cracking initiated at the notch ( a / W = 0.2, where a is crack length and W is width of the specimen), arrest did not occur until the crack was nearly through the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ), fracture was completely intergranular. 1000× Fatigue failure of shaft on bucket elevator used to handle asphalt. Fracture of the AISI 4340 part (330 HB) initiated at an area of fretting wear in the keyway. The bending stress was calculated at just 131 MPa (19 ksi), but the stress riser due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... stress state and friction conditions present in the bulk deformation process. These two factors are described and brought together in an experimental workability analysis. bend test bulk deformation bulk workability testing compression test forging fracture limit line partial-width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compression, bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the factors that determine the extent of deformation a metal can withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. It informs that workability depends on the local conditions of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature in combination with material factors. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article also provides formulas for flat rolling, conical-die extrusion, wire drawing, deep drawing of cups from sheet metal, and bending, and formulas for anisotropic sheet materials. bending conical-die extrusion deep drawing flat rolling sheet metal forming strain strain rate stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... that significantly affect the fracture propagation rate and fracture appearance. The external environment includes hydrogen, corrosive media, low-melting metals, state of stress, strain rate, and temperature. The mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking in metals such as steels, aluminum, brass, and...