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bending

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Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... treatment impact resistance machinability microstructure physical properties reversed bending sensitivity test bar wear resistance pressure tightness CAST IRONS are alloys of iron, carbon, and silicon in which more carbon is present than can be retained in solid solution in austenite at the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article also provides formulas for flat rolling, conical-die extrusion, wire drawing, deep drawing of cups from sheet metal, and bending, and formulas for anisotropic sheet materials. bending conical-die extrusion deep drawing flat rolling sheet metal forming strain strain rate stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 2 Minimum practical inside radii for the cold draw bending of annealed steel or copper round tubing to 180° Tubing outside diameter Minimum practical inside radius (a) Grooved bending tools Cylindrical bending block without mandrel; ratio, <30 (b) (poor conditions) With...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, brittle fracture, and in-service rotary bending fatigue fracture of fractured roof-truss angles, pressure-vessel shells, automotive axle shafts, broken keyed spindles, crane gears, blooming-mill spindles, automotive bolts, and crane wheels of these steels. axle shafts brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... open-header dies. fatigue fracture fractograph hydrogen embrittlement impact fracture microstructure quench cracking reversed bending stress-corrosion cracking tension-overload fracture tool steel Cracking of AISI M2 and M7 end mills due to improper rebuilding procedures. A robotic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., compression test, and bend test. It examines specialized tests including plane-strain compression test, partial-width indentation test, secondary-tension test, and ring compression test. The article explains that workability is determined by two main factors: the ability to deform without fracture and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides information on the classification, microstructure, castability and section sensitivity of gray iron. It describes properties of the test bar and provides a short note on fatigue limit in reversed bending. Although the ASTM size B test bar is the bar most commonly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on the cantilever beam test, wedge-opening load test, contoured double-cantilever beam test, three-point and four-point bend tests, rising step-load test, disk-pressure test, slow strain-rate tensile test, and potentiostatic slow strain-rate tensile test for hydrogen embrittlement. constant...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the evaluation of mechanical properties of freestanding films and films adherent to their substrates. Common methods of testing freestanding films, including uniaxial tensile testing, uniaxial creep testing, biaxial testing, and beam-bending methods, are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., iron-base, molybdenum-base, and tantalum-base materials. The fractographs illustrate fatigue striations, slow-bending fracture, quasi-cleavage fracture, corrosion-fatigue fracture, fatigue crack, intergranular cleavage, microvoid coalescence, tension-overload fracture, crack propagation, impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of low-carbon steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the following: the intergranular fracture, bending impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., impact fracture, fatigue fracture surface, reversed torsional fatigue fracture, transgranular cleavage fracture, rotating bending fatigue, tension-overload fracture, torsion-overload fracture, slip band crack, crack growth and crack initiation, crack nucleation, microstructure, hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques and discusses the advantages and limitations of each technique when used in failure analysis. The focus is on various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. The testing types covered include uniaxial tension testing, uniaxial compression testing, bend testing, hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compression, bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... brittle fracture, transgranular fracture, intergranular fracture, and crack propagation of the tungsten carbide. brittle fracture cemented carbides four-point bending test fractograph intergranular fracture tungsten carbide Fig. 1273 Eta phase on the fracture surface of a 94WC-6Co alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, grain boundaries, notch and fatigue precrack, dimpled rupture, and fatigue striations of these alloys. fractograph intergranular fracture nickel alloys Fig. 867 Surface of a fracture in a bend-test specimen of Nickel 201 containing 0.02% C, 0.35% Mn, 0.01% S, 0.35% Si, 0.25% Cu...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in four-point bending at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min (0.02 in./min). Fig. 1278 : Fracture surface shows radial crack lines emanating from the origin, which was a corrosion pit (top). SEM (30° tilt), 115×. Fig. 1279 : Close-up of pit-ceramic interface reveals preferential grain-boundary attack in...