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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., and the introduction of closed-loop controls and diagnostic feedback systems in the EB welding systems. It reviews the beam diagnostic tools that interrogate the beam to produce a reconstruction of the power density distribution and provide additional information on the size and shape of the EB. Knowledge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... block and set beam parameters. It is recommended that the beam diagnostics tool(s) are used here to characterize the electron beam. An example of beam diagnostics used is found in the literature ( Ref 11 , 12 ). A weld or scanning program may be called up. Align joint to the beam position, using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... to allow a part to be simultaneously heat treated and welded with one beam, or allow multiple welds to be made using one beam ( Ref 10 , 11 ). In addition, electron beam diagnostics are being continually improved to provide a greater measure of quality control for electron beams that was not available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and working distance by controlling the beam diameter. Thus, a working knowledge of the focusing optics is important for an engineer developing the laser welding process. Important formulae related to the laser as a welding tool will be summarized in following subsections dealing with process variables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... in part to the continuing improvements in power source reliability, laser power and beam quality, and power source diagnostics. Laser Welding Process Description Lasers produce coherent electromagnetic radiation that can be focused to a small spot size, resulting in a high power density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... phased array, have been used for weld inspections. Phased array probes consist of multiple transducer elements within a single probe housing that can be grouped to form a desired aperture size and then pulsed in different timing sequences. By varying the timing sequences, the ultrasonic beam can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., the ultrasonic beam can be electronically scanned, steered, and focused to provide quicker coverage of a weld zone. Illustrations in Fig. 2 show how the linear phased array technique is used to focus or steer an ultrasonic beam for better detection. In both cases, the amount and sequence of delay in firing...
Book Chapter

By Yoram Koren
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... tools, welders, and laser beam cutters) mainly because of its flexibility and the lower investment required. The preference of CNC over DNC is increasing as a result of the availability and declining costs of minicomputers and microcomputers. One of the objectives of CNC systems is to replace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.../in. 2 ). (See the article “Introduction to High Energy Density Electron and Laser Beam Welding” in this Volume for an introduction to the nature of laser beam radiation.) Lasers have been promoted as potentially useful welding tools for a variety of applications. By 1965, a variety of laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... sectioning, focused ion beam tomography, atom probe tomography, and X-ray microtomography. Nine case studies are presented that represent the work of the various research groups currently working on 3D microscopy using serial sectioning and illustrate the variants of the basic experimental techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract Laser deposition involves the articulation of a laser beam and the introduction of material into the beam path to fuse the material onto a substrate or into a functional shape. It can be divided into two broad categories: cladding and near-net shape processing. This article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... can be easily recognized. Therefore, CT represents an important tool for wood dating, because the information about growth rings position and dimension patterns allows one to perform dendrochronology, which, up to now, has been intensively used for dating instruments. Besides diagnostics, micro-CT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006858
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... of polymers and elastomers, the mold can be created by using a traditional lithography and casting process or by using a subtractive process such as e-beam etching. In the case of wafer substrates (such as silicon or quartz), the mold is created using microfabrication tools that include dry etching techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and diamond-like carbon) ( Ref 13 ). The areas of application range from electronics to biology, tribology, and optics. The list of materials successfully deposited as high-quality thin films is continuously growing. In spite of its success, the technique remains primarily a laboratory research tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...: Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing processes Coatings on tools, bearings, and other wear-resistant parts Optical, opto-electronic, and corrosion-resisting products Monolithic parts, ultrafine powders, and high-strength fibers This article emphasizes the CVD of hard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... is presented. ion beam interaction focused ion beam imaging focused ion beam milling Overview Introduction Focused ion beam (FIB) instruments can be thought of as the tools that can help humans to see, manipulate, and analyze matter at the smallest length scales. At the most fundamental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.../epoxy solid composite laminates in primary structures such as floor beams and other critical substructures. These uses demonstrate continued confidence in the capabilities of composite materials. However, the effort needed to maintain composite components must be reduced to realize the complete life...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... It reviews the important quality control techniques used during the manufacture of composite components by analyzing tooling control, material control, pattern orientation control, and in-process control. composite components equipment design in-process control material control nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Established NDE methods for technical diagnostics include ( Ref 7 ): Vibration monitoring Acoustic emission sensing Ultrasonics Radiography Eddy current Thermography An often-used NDE technique for functional performance control of machinery is vibration monitoring. Vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract This article covers in-line process monitoring of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods of laser and electron beam (e-beam) powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). It focuses on methods that monitor the component directly throughout the build process...