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bead correction factor

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The article describes the types of strain analysis, namely, thinning strain analysis and circle grid strain analysis. It also provides information on the applications of the thinning strain analysis. bead correction factor circle grid strain analysis flat blanks formability troubleshooting forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and the movement of the metal at the rear of the pool both serve as guides in checking weld quality. The ripples produced on the bead should be uniform and have good side tie-in with no undercut or excessive reinforcement. The factors described below are essential for maintaining high-quality welding. Correct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... against a known isotherm (e.g., the fusion boundary). In practice, such corrections are done by adjusting the arc efficiency factor, η, until a good correlation is achieved between predictions and experiments. Physical properties for some metals d alloys Table 2 Physical properties for some metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of correct procedures. Both the shape of the molten pool and the movement of the metal at the rear of the pool serve as guides in checking weld quality. The ripples produced on the bead should be uniform and have good side tie-in with no undercut or excessive reinforcement. The following factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... undesirable bead shape. Correct current ( Fig. 13 ) will produce a well-shaped bead. Fig. 13 Effect of welding current on bead shape The direction of current flow will also affect the weld bead profile. The current may be direct with the electrode positive (reverse polarity), electrode negative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... bottom-line impact. Rapid resolution requires choosing a corrective action based on understanding both the problem and its initiation. Accurately defining the problem is a critical first step in determining effective corrective actions in any failure analysis. Sheet forming failures typically fall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the weld. The restraint can be affected by factors such as preheat, weld bead, positioning, and end restraint, and thus determination of the effect of weld processing not attributable to the change in residual stress distribution is difficult. Improvement of Fatigue Performance As has been shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and their general geometric features. These operations include hole making, flanging, bead and rib forming, and stretching and drawing for shallow or deep recesses. The article illustrates the general approach to design for sheet forming and the considerations that must be made for material savings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... indications that are found by nondestructive testing methods. Surface features that are causes for rejection include: Excessive mismatch at the weld joint Excessive bead convexity and bead reinforcement Excessive bead concavity, underfill, and undersized welds Sharp undercut and overlap...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract This article introduces process factors that influence die wear and lubrication for metal forming operations such as bending, spinning, stretching, deep drawing, and ironing. It discusses the effects of part shape, sheet thickness, tolerance requirements, sheet metal, and lubrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... a complex and low-pressure condition, and it can be argued that the values calculated by the normal methods are not true friction coefficients but rather some combined friction coefficient and error correction factor. The use of the friction coefficients is valid as long as the coefficients are used...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and indicates that after a measurement of a low percentage of coverage has been established, the correct exposure time for any percentage of coverage can be readily determined. Fig. 1 Area coverage as a function of exposure time in shot peening Measurement of Coverage Direct methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... 1 ). It is therefore easy to overlook the fact that the process is ostensibly a source of heat and mass inputs to the weldment. Melting of the base metal, dilution of the filler metal, solidification of the weld bead, microstructural development in the weld bead and HAZ, and thermomechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... convex beads, which may cause cold lapping (lack of fusion), but it also provides a pronounced pinch effect that can be controlled by inductance. The addition of helium is helpful when induction and slope cannot be varied. Helium imparts a wetting action, and the arc is hotter. These factors greatly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in illumination or exposure can be quickly detected and corrected. Specialized view camera systems for photomacrography are commonly used for fractography ( Fig. 1 ). These cameras are mounted on very rigid stands needed for higher-magnification photomacrography. These photomacrography systems lack the tilts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... if phase transformation of the material is taken into account, which implies that couplings between structure and material simulation are well within the scope of the procedure. Fig. 1 Subdomains of welding simulation showing the main target and coupling factors. Adapted from Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... the blankholder pressure often corrects a splitting problem. Shape Distortion In forming operations, metal is deformed elastically and plastically by applied forces. Upon removal of the external forces, the internal elastic stresses relax. In some locations, they can relax completely, with only a very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the weld penetration profile. Otherwise, a lack of fusion and an irregular bead surface profile can result. The spray transfer mode can be used to weld almost any metal or alloy, because of the inert characteristics of the argon shield. Sometimes, thickness can be a factor, because of the relatively...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... plane. Because the part was 3 m (10 ft) long, considerable shimming of the tools was required to produce satisfactory parts. Correct Shimming Correct shimming is a major factor in maintaining accuracy when producing shapes in a press brake such as that shown in Fig. 20 . Shims are required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... and accuracy, or between locking and hourglassing, as mentioned subsequently. For forming and springback analysis, the procedure consists of applying boundary conditions (i.e., the motion of a punch or die, the action of draw beads, frictional constraints, and so on), stopping at the end of the forming...