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beach marks

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., while surface initiation is expected for higher-stress levels 1 and 2. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 4 Subsurface fatigue origins (at arrows) in an induction-hardened 8.25 cm (3.25 in.) high-manganese medium-carbon steel axle laboratory tested in rotating bending. Note absence of beach marks. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... bending. Note absence of beach marks. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 5 Subsurface fatigue origin in-service failure of 6.4 cm (2.5 in.) nitrided medium-carbon alloy steel crank pin. In contrast with the fracture surface shown in Fig. 4 , produced in the laboratory under continuous uniform loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and extended almost through the entire cross section before final fast rupture occurred. Beach marks are visible; these swing counterclockwise because the direction of rotation was clockwise. 1.88× Fig. 195 Surface of a fatigue fracture in an induction-hardened axle of AISI 1041 steel with a hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... characteristic beach marks. As a general rule, low-stress high-cycle fatigue produces flat-face (plane-strain) fractures. The fracture surface appears fine grained and lightly polished near the crack-nucleation site, where the stress intensification is least. The surface becomes progressively rougher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In such a case, macroscopic evidence indicating the nature and type of fatigue loading (beach marks, ratchet marks, etc.) may provide useful evidence to the analyst. The ultimate purpose of fractography and the other methods of failure analysis is the determination of the (technical) root cause of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... montonic versus fatigue fracture and ductile versus brittle fractures (on either a macroscale or microscale): Monotonic versus fatigue fracture: Beach marks and striations indicate fatigue, but their absence does not confirm fracture from monotonic loads. Fracture surfaces from fatigue do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... area in Fig. 927 . Some features vaguely resemble fatigue striations, but it is doubtful that they were caused by fatigue inasmuch as they do not seem to have been formed in an orderly sequence (and there are no beach marks in Fig. 922 and 923 ). Instead, the surface is very tumbled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...× and 400× (Z. Flanders, Packer Engineering Associates, Inc.) Fig. 257 Surface of a fatigue fracture that occurred, after approximately 1 year of service, in an AISI 1055 steel wheel of a 545-Mg (600-ton) stripper crane. Visible in the center of the fracture is a fatigue zone showing beach marks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... among the fatigue evidence. A nonrotating pin with subcritical overload cycles between fatigue beach marks is pictured as Fig. 14 . Fig. 14 Plan view image of a pin fracture surface that failed by uniaxial bending fatigue. Spectrum loading led to episodic fatigue and overload fracture prior...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). 3× Fatigue Marks The formation of cracks under conditions of repeated or cyclic stress has been denoted as fatigue cracking. Zones of crack propagation on fatigue fractures exhibit several types of surface marks, such as beach marks, striations, and ratchet marks. Beach Marks...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... showing fibrous zone (A), radial zone (B), and shear lip (C). 3× The formation of cracks under conditions of repeated or cyclic stress has been denoted as fatigue cracking. Zones of crack propagation on fatigue fractures exhibit several types of surface marks, such as beach marks, striations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the larger wires as received; Fig. 9(c) , after removal of the rust. Arrow A in Fig. 9(c) indicates what appeared to be a nick in the side of the wire; arrow B indicates a bright, smooth area containing beach marks radiating inward, which indicated fatigue cracking. Flat-type fractures were believed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... lifting equipment is operated. Fig. 1 End of a steel wire-rope wire that failed in tension because of overloading. Necking at the end of the wire indicates ductile fracture. Thickness/diameter changes, keyways, lubrication holes, rough-machining marks, and threaded sections often act...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... fracture surface consists of three zones. The initiation zone often is black in steels due to oxidation and may be associated with ratchet marks. The fatigue region often shows beach marks. The overload region is rougher than the fatigue region and may show chevrons or radial marks. In this example...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... possessed by the metal can be appraised. In the study of fatigue fractures, macroscopic examination of such features as beach marks, ratchet marks, fast-fracture zones, and crack-initiation sites, if present, may yield information relative to the kinds and magnitude of the stresses that caused failure...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... fractures, most cast alloys will exhibit thumbnail-shaped beach marks or arrest lines that fan outward from the origin region. Fig. 1 Overload fracture through a low-alloy steel casting. Courtesy of Stork Technimet, Inc. New Berlin, WI The fracture surface texture of cast components can...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... deflections at which springs are usually used. Beach Marks or Striations Beach marks or striations, which are the identifying feature of fatigue in many components, are not always present in spring fatigue fracture surfaces. The absence of beach marks has led some investigators to misdiagnose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... • Show crack propagation direction Crack arrest lines (monotonic loading) (U-shape) • Lines point in direction of crack propagation • Indicate incomplete constraint Crack arrest lines (cyclic loading) (beach marks, conchoidal marks) • Indicates cyclic loading • Propagation from center of radius...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Two failure origins are located at BB, and one at AA. 43× Fig. 8 Failure origin at an inclusion (arrow) located 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) below the spring surface. Note beach marks surrounding inclusion. 55× Fig. 9 Fracture at a wire defect. Beach marks are prominent beginning at the base...