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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The primary objectives of the rolling process are to reduce the cross section of the incoming material while improving its properties and to obtain the desired section at the exit from the rolls. This article illustrates a rolling sequence for the fabrication of bars, shapes, and flat...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Hot-rolled steel bars and other hot rolled steel shapes are produced from ingots, blooms, or billets converted from ingots, or from strand cast blooms and billets, and comprise a variety of sizes and cross sections. This article provides a brief discussion on mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... caused by excessive material in a given hot roll pass being squeezed out into the area of the roll collar. When turned for the following pass, the material is rolled back into the bar and appears as a lap on the surface ( Fig. 2j ). Chevrons are internal flaws named for their shape ( Fig. 2k ). They...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the types of steels, including high-strength structural carbon steels and high-strength low-alloy steels (HSLA), available in all standard wrought forms such as sheet, strip, plate, structural shapes, bars, bar-size shapes. It discusses the special sections that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Rotary swaging is an incremental metalworking process for reducing the cross-sectional area or otherwise changing the shape of bars, tubes, or wires by repeated radial blows with two or more dies. This article discusses the applicability of swaging and metal flow during swaging. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... flakes, because they disrupt the matrix to a lesser extent, are desired when maximum tensile properties and a fine, smooth surface finish are needed. When a wedge-shape bar with about 10° taper cast in a sand mold and sectioned near the center of its length, and Rockwell hardness determinations are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., electron-beam melting, and vacuum-induction melting are all used commercially. After ingots are melted, standard hot-forming processes such as forging, bar rolling, and extrusion can be used for initial breakdown. The alloys react slowly with air, so hot working in air is quite successful. Most cold...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... warped and cracked castings. Fig. 4 Volume change recorded on the cooling of a 0.35% C cast steel. Source: Ref 2 Specific volume changes in various steels are plotted in Fig. 5 versus temperature. Linear contraction of cast steel bars is shown in Fig. 6 and Table 2 . As described by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... straightening. (g) Seven-roll straightening. (h) Wire straightening Fig. 15 Arrangement of vertical-shaft and horizontal-shaft rolls in a roll straightener for straightening a rectangular-section bar Fig. 16 Moving-insert straightening for linear, flat, or irregularly shaped objects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... microstructure mill product, such as billets or bars, and secondary working refers to further forging of mill product into final component configurations. billets deformation die materials forging grain structure heating heating practice lubricants microstructure nickel-base alloy NICKEL is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Roll forging is a process for simultaneously reducing the cross-sectional area and changing the shape of heated bars, billets, or plates. This article provides an overview of the process capabilities, production techniques, machines and machine size selection considerations, and types...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., including all operations that convert ingot into general mill products, such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube, and wire. The section on secondary fabrication describes processes such as die forging, extrusion, hot and cold forming, machining, chemical milling, and joining. The article presents a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... this Section. Table 1 Wrought alloy products and tempers Alloy Sheet Plate Tube Pipe Structural profiles (shapes) (a) Extruded wire, rod, bar, and profiles (shapes) Rolled or cold-finished Rivets Forgings and forging stock Foil Fin stock Drawn Extruded Rod Bar Wire...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperatures on tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation, and the mechanical properly limits for aluminum alloy die forgings, non-heat-treatable and heat-treatable aluminum alloy sheets and plates, and non-heat-treatable aluminum alloy extruded wires, rods, bars, and shapes. aluminum alloy die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... AISI 202 AISI 321 AISI 205 AISI 329 AISI 216 AISI 330 Source: Ref 20 Fig. 20 Correspondence between length changes calculated by numerical simulations and predicted by a regression model after transformation-free cooling of bars made of austenitic steels. Source: Ref 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... between two vertices is larger than 2Δ r , a new vertex in the middle of the segment is introduced, and the facets attached to the edge are then split into two. The procedure is repeated until all edges have a length of approximately Δ r . In Fig. 8 , an arbitrary grain boundary, whose shape corresponds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... testing can be used to assess the bioresorbability of a ceramic. The extent of resorption in vivo may be measured directly, for example, by assessing osteoclast number and activity ( Ref 78 , 79 ), or indirectly, for example, by the size and shape of the ceramic on x-ray ( Ref 80 ). Histological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... following provides a brief description of some of the techniques. In the design of components for service at elevated temperature, both strength and stress-rupture ductility must be considered. Typically, for metallic materials, these properties are determined quantitatively by smooth-bar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and influences metal distribution. The simplest way to satisfy anode requirements is to suspend nickel bars from hooks placed on an anode bar so that the nickel, not the hook, is immersed in the plating solution. Nickel anode materials are encased in cloth anode bags to prevent insoluble anode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... screws inserted into threaded holes also help hold the babbitt to the shell. In some instances, brass or copper bars are tinned and recessed into the bore and bolted or screwed into the bore of the casting. In most cases, these methods are used on cast iron when caustic treatment is not available. The...