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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... carbon nanotubes, silica, metals/metal oxides, ceramics, clays, buckyballs, graphene, polymers, titanium dioxide, and waxes. These can be produced by a variety of methods, including chemical vapor deposition, plasma arcing, electrodeposition, sol-gel synthesis, and ball milling. The application of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... horizontal tail-actuator shafts, bucket elevators, aircraft propellers, helicopter bolts, air flasks, tie rod ball studs, and spiral gears. aircraft landing gears alloy steel corrosion fatigue crack nucleation crankshafts ductile fracture fatigue fracture fractograph grain boundaries hydrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Rolling-element bearings, whether ball bearings or roller bearings with spherical, straight, or tapered rollers, are fabricated from a wide variety of steels. This article discusses the production process, characteristics, nominal compositions, and types of bearing steels. These...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for wrought aluminum products Brinell hardness No., 500 kgf, 10 mm ball, HBS Vickers hardness No., 15 kgf, HV Rock well hardness No. Rockwell superficial hardness No. B scale, 100 kgf, 1 16 in. ball, HRB E scale, 100 kgf, 1 8 in. ball...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... HV ) 1 / 2 (240–1040 HV) HB=0.951 HV (steel ball, 200–400 HV) HB=0.941 HV (tungsten-carbide ball, 200–700 HV) Cemented carbides HRC = 117.35 − ( 2.43 × 10 6 HV ) 1 / 2 (900–1800 HV) HRA = 211 − ( 2.43...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... note small microcracks through sulfide inclusions. SEM, 1,150×. (R.C. Voigt and B. Pourlaidian, University of Kansas) Cracking in 75-mm (3-in.) diam balls made of a high-chromium white iron when subjected to severe, repeated impacts in a laboratory test. Fig. 106 : Cracks through eutectic M 7 C 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress distribution for a purely normal load. In practice, some tangent force (due to friction) is present, which changes this distribution. However, the general concept and conclusions of this overview are still valid. Fig. 2 Schematic of Hertzian contact between a ball and raceway in a bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., and a dead weight or load cell is used to apply a known load to the contact. A tangential force (sometimes referred to as friction force) sensor records the friction between the static and dynamic partners. The static partner can be of any appropriate shape but is usually a flat-ended pin or a ball...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ultrasonically bonded aluminum transistor base lead, 25 μm (1 mil) in diameter. The transistor was power cycled until bond failure occurred. SEM, 1500× (R.J. Schwinghamer, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center) Fig. 1336 Thermocompression ball bond defect between a gold wire, 25 μm (1 mil) in diameter, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hardness No. Sclerscope hardness No. Rockwell C Tensile strength (approximate) ksi 10 mm standard ball, 3000 kgf, HBS 10 mm carbide ball, 3000 kgf, HBW A scale, 60 kgf, HRA D scale, 100 kgf, HRD 15-N scale, 15 kgf, HR-15-N 30-N scale, 30 kgf, HR 30-N 45-N scale, 45 kgf, HR 45-N 68 940...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... Figure 6(a) shows normalized stress and strain-rate data from a superplastic nanocrystalline 1420 alloy ( Ref 42 ). The constitutive equations proposed by Ball and Hutchison ( Ref 28 , Eq 9 ) and Mukherjee ( Ref 29 ) are also plotted. The constitutive equation given by Mishra et al. ( Ref 43 ) is...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Protection of Lubricating Greases Mass loss ratio Sliding wear D 2266 Test Method for Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four-Ball Method) Wear scar diameter D 2670 Test Method for Measuring Wear Properties of Fluid Lubricants (Falex Pin and Vee Block Method) “Teeth wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and it consists of applying a constant load, usually 500 to 3000 kg, on a hardened steel ball-type indenter, 10 mm in diameter, to the flat surface of a workpiece ( Fig. 1 ). The 500 kg load is usually used for testing nonferrous metals, such as copper and aluminum alloys, whereas the 3000 kg load is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) metals, beryllium displays anisotropic mechanical properties in wrought forms because of crystallographic texture and grain morphology. The traditional ball-milling method of making powder produces flat, crystallographically oriented powder particles that naturally leads to a crystallographic texture in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... cast, min Hardened, min Softened, max in mm I A Ni-Cr-HC 550 600 600 … 8 200 B Ni-Cr-LC 550 600 600 … 8 200 I C Ni-Cr-GB 550 600 600 400 3 diam ball 75 diam ball I D Ni-Hi Cr 550 550 600 … 12 300 II A 12% Cr 550 550 600 400 1 diam ball 25...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... amount of zinc oxide or zinc cyanide and slowly add to the bath. Mix until completely dissolved. Instead of zinc salts, the bath may be charged with steel baskets of zinc anode balls that are allowed to dissolve into the solution until the desired metal content is reached. Add an initial 15 g/L (2.0...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Montmorillonites are derived from the formula Al 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 . The kaolin group includes such minerals as kaolinite, nacrite, dickite, and halloysite. The most important of these is kaolinite, because it is the most abundant constituent in china and ball clays. All kaolin minerals have two layers. One...
Book Chapter

By Matthew Donachie
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Metallic materials are the primary focus in this section; limited information is provided on ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and adhesives, especially where they interact with metallic materials. Metals frequently are used in the body for orthopedic purposes—such as hip stems and balls, knees...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... boundaries. In humid conditions, fracture only happens on a small scale due to the occurrence of crack-arrest mechanisms, and consequently, wear rates are reduced. Fig. 18 Average crater area versus number of impacts for SN220M silicon nitride counterfaces impacted with a SN220M silicon nitride ball...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... contact between balls and raceways in bearings and between mating surfaces in oscillating bearings and flexible couplings. In general, fretting occurs between two tightly fitting surfaces that are subjected to a cyclic, relative motion of extremely small amplitude ( Ref 1 , 2 ). For oxidizing...