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bainitic transformation

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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 11 Change in crystal structure due to bainitic transformation. (a) Conventional face-centered cubic (fcc) unit cell of austenite with basis vectors a 1 , a 2 , and a 3 . (b) Relation between the fcc and the body-centered tetragonal cell (b 1 , b 2 , b 3 ) or austenite. (c,d) Bainitic strain More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 14 Surface relief due to bainitic transformation. (a) Light micrograph showing upper bainite transformation product. (b) Accompanying interference micrograph More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the transformations of various categories of bainite in ferrous systems. These include upper bainite, lower bainite, inverse bainite, granular bainite, and columnar bainite. The article also provides information on the bainite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract The transformation of austenite of cast irons represents a more complex and less studied subject. This article discusses the general features of the decomposition of austenite into bainite. It describes the heat treatment cycles of austempered cast iron microstructure...
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 3 Schematic of equilibrium free-energy diagram at austempering temperature ( T a ) for phases involved in bainitic transformation of free-graphite cast iron More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 7 Section of the Fe-C-2%Si equilibrium phase diagram showing a metastable projection of the α + γ two-phase field into the bainitic transformation temperature range More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... lead. Salt quenching is covered in more detail in the article “Salt Quenching” in this Volume. Allowed to transform isothermally (over several minutes or hours) to bainite at the temperature that produces the desired hardness. This is generally accomplished in a bath of molten nitrite-nitrate salt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and the phase transformations that change the structure and properties at varying levels of carbon content. Microstructures described include pearlite, bainite, proeutectoid ferrite and cementite, ferrite-pearlite, and martensite. The article depicts some of the primary processing steps that result in ferrite...
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Published: 01 December 2004
after transformation at 450 °C (840 °F) for 0.5 s. Magnification of 2000× reveals a feathery appearance of upper bainite. (c) Lower bainite is dominant after isothermal transformation at 300 °C (570 °F) for 200 s. Lower bainite has a more acicular shape that is revealed at original magnification 250 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... which are useful in determining the conditions for proper heat treatment (solid-state transformation) of metals and alloys. The influence of the mechanisms of phase nucleation and growth on the morphology, size, and distribution of grains and second phases is also described. bainite eutectic...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 17 Radial marks on tensile test specimen of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 4150 steel isothermally transformed to bainite, quenched to room temperature, and then tempered. (a) Lower bainite, isothermally transformed at 300 °C (570 °F) for 1 h, tempered at 600 °C (1110 °F) for 48 h. (b More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., or if the transfer time from furnace to the quench is too long, a slack quench condition occurs. This results in the formation of nonmartensitic transformation products (also known as dark etching constituent, slow quench product, and upper bainite), appearing as a distinct, dark constituent dispersed...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 20 Replica electron micrograph (a) showing the microstructural unit of inverse bainite comprised of a single cementite plate sheathed with ferrite in an Fe-1.34C alloy, austenitized at 1200 °C (2200 °F) for 15 min and isothermally transformed at 600 °C (1100 °F) for 2 s, and (b) showing More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 44 Use of sodium metabisulfite to reveal structure in 5160 alloy steel (Fe-0.6%C-0.85%Mn-0.25%Si-0.8%Cr). (a) Upper bainite and as-quenched martensite in a specimen that was austenitized at 830 °C (1525 °F) for 30 min, isothermally held at 538 °C (1000 °F) for 60 s to partially transform More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 12 Total dilation (proportional to the degree of reaction) versus transformation temperature during isothermal formation of bainite in 4340 steel. B f , bainite finish temperature; B s , bainite start temperature. Source: Ref 14 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 15 Lower bainite. (a) Light micrograph illustrating sheaves of lower bainite in a partially transformed (668 K) Fe-0.3C-4Cr wt% alloy. The light matrix phase is martensite. (b) Corresponding transmission electron micrograph illustrating subunits of lower bainite. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 8 Optical micrographs of (a) the structure formed by transformation at 773 K for 3 min in Fe-0.21C-8.81Ni wt% alloy, (b) typical upper bainite formed by the decomposition at 723 K for 3 min, (c) the upper bainite laths formed at 623 K for 10 min, and (d) the bainitic structure formed More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 72 AISI S7 continuous cooling transformations. Some very fine carbide is present in all specimens in this series. (a) Austenitized at 940 °C (1725 °F) and cooled at 445 °C/h (800 °F/h). 51.5 HRC. Structure is nearly all bainite with some small patches of martensite (white). (b) Cooled at 220 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 1 Time-temperature-transformation diagrams in which (a) the pearlite and bainite regions extensively overlap, and (b) the pearlite and bainite regions are well separated in the temperature ranges in which they occur. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 71 AISI S7 continuous cooling transformations. Some very fine undissolved carbide is present in all specimens in this series. (a) Austenitized at 940 °C (1725 °F) and cooled at 2780 °C/h (5000 °F/h). 62 HRC. Structure is martensite plus a small amount of bainite. (b) Cooled at 1390 °C/h More