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bainite

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the transformations of various categories of bainite in ferrous systems. These include upper bainite, lower bainite, inverse bainite, granular bainite, and columnar bainite. The article also provides information on the bainite transformations...
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Published: 01 February 2024
Fig. 15 Bainite morphologies. (a) Upper bainite. (b) Lower bainite More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 17 Microstructure of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel. 2% nital + 4% picral etch. Original magnification: 500×. (c) S5 tool steel austenitized, isothermally transformed (partially) at 540 °C (1000 °F) for 8 h, and water quenched to form upper bainite (dark More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 36 Appearance of upper bainite (a and b) and lower bainite (c) in eutectoid steel (0.8% C) at original magnification 250× (left) and 2000× (right). (a) The structure is pearlite with some upper bainite after isothermal exposure at 500 °C (930 °F) for 0.5 s. (b) Upper bainite is dominant More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 15 Lower bainite. (a) Light micrograph illustrating sheaves of lower bainite in a partially transformed (668 K) Fe-0.3C-4Cr wt% alloy. The light matrix phase is martensite. (b) Corresponding transmission electron micrograph illustrating subunits of lower bainite. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 22 Microstructure of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel. 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 23 TEM micrographs of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 21 Microstructure of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel. 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 22 TEM micrographs of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 10 Lower bainite generated by isothermal transformation of 52100 at 230 °C (445 °F) for 10 h. Reprinted with permission from Carl Hanser Verlag, Muenchen. Source: Ref 16 More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 15 Comparison of single-stage and two-stage bainite transformation process. Source: Ref 15 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 8 Transformation-expansion comparison of martensite and bainite at various carbon contents. This applies to the commercial austempering range of 260 to 399 °C (500 to 750 °F). Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 5 Light micrograph showing patches of upper bainite (dark) formed in 4150 steel partially transformed at 460 °C (860 °F). Courtesy of F.A. Jacobs More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 6 Light micrograph showing lower bainite (dark plates or needles) formed in 4150 steel. Courtesy of F.A. Jacobs. More
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Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 5 Upper bainite in UNS 43600 steel. Etched with picral. 500× More
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Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 6 Lower bainite in UNS 43600 steel. Matrix is untempered martensite. 500× More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 15 Grain-boundary transition products (primarily bainite) observed 1 mm (0.04 in.) below the surface of a 10V45 bar. Hardness: HRC 59. Portions of bar with a more effective quench showed HRC 61 at a similar depth. More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 18 Light micrograph showing patches of (a) upper bainite formed in 4150 steel partially transformed at 460 °C (860 °F) and (b) lower bainite (dark plates) in 4150 steel (nital etch). Courtesy of F.A. Jacobs ( Ref 25 ) More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 3 Basic microstructures and processing of special cast iron (B: Bainite, M: Martensite, ADI: austempered ductile iron). Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 15 Upper bainite formed isothermally at 480 °C (900 °F) in AISI 4142 alloy steel. (Left) 845 °C; 480 °C for 30 s; water quenched. (Right) 845 °C; 480 °C for 2 h; water quenched. Both etched with 4% picral. 1000× More