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bainite

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Orientation relationships for bainitic structures Table 1 Orientation relationships for bainitic structures Kurdjumov-Sachs ( Ref 7 ) (011) α ∥(111) γ [11 1 ] α ∥[10 1 ] γ Nishiyama-Wassermann ( Ref 8 , 9 ) (011) α ∥(111) γ [0 1 1] α ∥[ 11 2] γ Bagaryatski ( Ref 21...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract The transformation of austenite of cast irons represents a more complex and less studied subject. This article discusses the general features of the decomposition of austenite into bainite. It describes the heat treatment cycles of austempered cast iron microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... irons: ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite, and austenite. The alloying elements, used to enhance the corrosion resistance of cast irons, including silicon, nickel, chromium, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, and titanium, are reviewed. The article provides information on classes of the cast irons based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of these factors in both theoretical and practical terms, with particular focus on the role of microstructure in various irons. These include bainite, pearlite, ferfite, martensite, austenite, ferrite-pearlite, ferrite-cementite, ferrite-martensite, graphite, and cementite. The article discusses the evolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and the phase transformations that change the structure and properties at varying levels of carbon content. Microstructures described include pearlite, bainite, proeutectoid ferrite and cementite, ferrite-pearlite, and martensite. The article depicts some of the primary processing steps that result in ferrite...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... carbides, graphite, martensite, and a variety of intermetallic phases, nitrides, and nonmetallic inclusions. The article further describes the two-phase constituents including, tempered martensite, pearlite, and bainite and nonmetallic inclusions in steel that consist of two or more phases. common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on heat treatment of malleable and compacted-graphite irons to produce ferritic and pearlitic malleable irons. It describes the heat treatment cycles of malleable iron, including martempering, tempering, bainitic heat treatment, and surface hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... steels with ferrite-pearlite and ferrite-bainite microstructures for use in boiler tubes, pressure vessels, and steam turbines. The selection of steels to be used at elevated temperatures generally involves compromise between the higher efficiencies obtained at higher operating temperatures and the cost...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... at two different carbon contents. (a) 0.10% C. (b) 0.25% C. 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 200× Fig. 19 Mechanical properties of ferrite-pearlite steels as a function of carbon content. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 21 Microstructure of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., various alloy carbides, graphite, martensite, and a variety of intermetallic phases, nitrides, and nonmetallic inclusions. The article further describes the two-phase constituents including, tempered martensite, pearlite, and bainite and nonmetallic inclusions in steel that consist of two or more phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... equilibrium phase Pearlite Metastable microconstituent; lamellar mixture of ferrite and cementite Martensite bct (supersaturated solution of carbon in ferrite) Hard metastable phase; lath morphology when <0.6 wt% C; plate morphology when >1.0 wt% C and mixture of those in between Bainite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., and other elements in steel are associated. This article describes the phases of heat treated steel, and provides information on effect of temperature change and the size of carbon atoms relative to that of iron atoms during the heat treatment. bainite cementite continuous cooling transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...) Diameter of section. (d) Salt temperature adjusted to give maximum hardness and 100% bainite. (e) Modified austempering: microstructure contained pearlite as well as bainite. (f) Salt with water additions. (g) Experimental value Effect of austempering time on hardness of three steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... plate martensite. 2% nital etch. Original magnification 1000× Fig. 43 Microstructure of quenched low-alloy steel showing mixed bainite and martensite. 2% nital etch. Original magnification 1000× Fig. 44 Microstructure of low-carbon steel showing delineation of the ferrite grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and Cronidur 30 in 3.5% salt solution Fig. 15 Comparison of single-stage and two-stage bainite transformation process. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 8 A cooling time and transformation (CTT) diagram for a 52100 Jominy end-quench test sample austenitized at 845 °C (1550 °F). The three locations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., and the quenching occurs in the same fashion immediately behind this. The intent is to convert the surface, or case microstructure, to martensite. However, sometimes nonmartensitic transformation products such as bainite may be present. This bainitic microstructure is present at the interface between the heated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of °C/min), the transformation start and end temperatures given by the CCT curves, the amount of each transformation product, and the hardness of the final structure are shown. Ac 3 , 788 °C (1450 °F); Ac 1 , 716 °C (1321 °F). F, ferrite; P, pearlite; B, bainite; M, martensite. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... to influence the hardenability effect of a given quantity of alloy and carbon. Grain size could also be influential but to a lesser degree, because it does not vary greatly from ASTM 6 to 9 when excess carbides are present, and its effect is generally small, particularly if bainite rather than pearlite limits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.... , Nomura I. , Hanai Y. , Mori M. , and Suzuki M. , “Development of High Strength and High Toughness Bainitic Steel for Automotive Lower Arm,” SAE Technical Paper 950211, 1995 39. Takebayashi M. and Taki M. , Recent Trends in Heat Treatment , Toyota Gijyutsu , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... compared to conventional martensitic materials. This microstructure of acicular (platelike) ferrite and carbide was named “bainite” after one of its discoverers. In the late 1930s and early 1940s, this isothermal process, by now known as austempering, was first applied to cast irons by researchers...