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axial tension testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...). After Ref 14 Engineering stress-strain curves from isothermal hot-tension tests are constructed from load-elongation measurements. The engineering, or nominal, stress is equal to the average axial stress and is obtained by dividing the instantaneous load by the original cross-sectional area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... similarly obtained for the 5182 alloy. Fig. 14 Results of secondary-tension test on aluminum alloy 7075. Source: Ref 20 When a flat, ring-shaped specimen is upset in the axial direction, the resulting change in shape depends only on the amount of compression in the thickness direction and the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tension test assuming uniform deformation and planar isotropy (R 0 ° = R 90° = R 45 ° = R)  Axial true stress σ 1  Axial true strain ε 1  Effective stress ( σ ¯ ) σ ¯   = 3 ( 1 + R ) 2 ( 2 + R ) σ 1  Effective strain ( ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... torsion strain. The fixed end of the specimen is connected to a transducer that measures torque, which is converted to torsion stress. Sophisticated hot torsion machines use dual axis transducers on the fixed end to measure both torque and axial load. Changes in axial load occur during torsion if the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Circumferential tension and axial compression stresses at the equator of an upset cylinder The effects of the bulged surface in cylindrical compression tests can be enhanced by the use of shaped compression specimens. These specimens contain flanged or tapered sections at midheight, which increase the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... torsion to deformation levels equivalent to a true axial strain of 5 or more in tension, or a reduction of 90 to 95% in compression. Another attractive feature of the torsion test is that a constant true strain rate can be imposed on any given annular region of the specimen by simply twisting one end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... specimen that did not barrel ( Ref 13 ). This result provides the theoretical justification for using the axial compressive strain as the effective strain in constructing the stress-strain curve. In tension testing the onset of necking indicates unstable flow, characterized by a rapid decrease in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract The interaction of an implant with the human body environment may result in degradation of the implant, called corrosion. This article discusses the corrosion testing of metallic implants and implant materials. The corrosion environments for medical implants are the extracellular human...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... used. There are extensometers that measure both axial and transverse strain; these systems can be used for both tensile and compression tests. However, there does not seem to be a reliable extensometer to measure shear strain for the shear specimens, so strain gages must be used in this case. One of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... procedure depends on independent evidence about the activation energies of the dominant molecular processes. In addition to this fundamental limitation to their practical utility, the modulus data derivable from a stress-strain test are not very accurate, mainly because axiality of loading is difficult to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...., diameter) billets containing 25 vol% silicon carbide in a 6000-series aluminum alloy. A through-diameter edge scan is shown in Fig. 44 , and a through-thickness axial scan is shown in Fig. 45 . The billet volume containing several of the indications found in this inspection was removed from the billet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... emits light that creates the image that is viewed by the human eye or with a camera. Fluoroscopy is an example of real-time radiography. Another type of radiographic inspection is computed tomography, a computerized axial-tomography scanner provides a cross-sectional view of a test piece. Some of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) σ a = σ 0 = 4 P π D 2 = 4 P h π D 0 2 h 0 where σ a is the average true axial stress, which is equal to the flow stress σ 0 or effective stress σ for homogeneous deformation. From constancy of volume during plastic deformation, D 0 2 h 0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Typically, roll forming is used as an alternative to forging or ring rolling. Roll forming technology has been practiced in a variety of forms, including metal spinning, axial roll forming, and shear forming ( Ref 1 , Ref 2 , Ref 3 , Ref 4 , Ref 5 , Ref 6 , Ref 7 , Ref 8 , Ref 9 , Ref 10 , Ref 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rate is low; however, it deviates from unity as N increases. In addition, it has been found that the dependence of η APP /η on the strain-rate sensitivity, m , is relatively weak ( Ref 27 ). Fig. 2 Measured cavity volume fraction (C v ) as a function of axial strain from tension testing of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... homogeneous effective medium (HEM). The article analyzes the anisotropy predictions of rolled face-centered-cubic and body centered-cubic sheets and presents simulations of the axial deformation of hexagonal-close-packed zirconium. The applications of polycrystal constitutive models to the simulation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... evidence and the directionality of the core overload fracture features suggested that the applied stresses were not purely axial, as would be anticipated in this application. Resulfurized steels are typically case hardened for wear resistance, but the hardened structure has relatively poor ductility...