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axial tension testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... fasteners include product hardness, proof load, axial and wedge tension testing of full-sized products, tension testing of machined test specimens, and total extension at fracture testing. Product hardness, proof load, and cone proof-load test are the test methods for internally threaded fasteners...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 15 Tension-tension fatigue curves for longitudinal specimens of air-melted and electroslag-remelted heats of H13 steel. Axial fatigue tests performed in an Ivy machine at a frequency of 60 Hz; the alternating stress was 67% of the mean stress for all tests ( R = 0.2). Arrows signify More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... texture) F (σ yy −σ zz ) 2 + G (σ zz −σ xx ) 2 + H (σ xx −σ yy ) 2 +2 L σ yz 2 +2Mσ zx 2 +2 N σ xy 2 = 1 Uniaxial sheet tension test assuming uniform deformation and planar isotropy (R 0 ° = R 90° = R 45 ° = R)  Axial true stress σ 1  Axial true strain ε 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article contains nine tables that present useful formulas for deformation analysis and workability testing. The tables present formulas for effective stress, strain, and strain rate in arbitrary coordinates, principal, compression and tension testing of isotropic material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... characteristics differ widely ( Ref 3 ). Likewise, the failure of unidirectionally reinforced composite materials, particularly along the direction of reinforcement, is much different in compression than in tension. In this article, the characteristics of deformation during axial compression testing...
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 2 Measured cavity volume fraction (C v ) as a function of axial strain from tension testing of a gamma titanium aluminide alloy. The test temperature was 1000 °C, and the strain rate was 10 −4 s −1 . Source: Ref 18 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 16 Tension-compression fatigue curves for air-melted and electroslag-remelted heats of H13 steel. Axial fatigue tests performed in an Ivy machine at a frequency of 60 Hz; the stresses were fully reversed for all tests ( R = −1). Open symbols indicate longitudinal fatigue data; filled More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 11 Electrohydraulic testing machine modified for combined torsional and axial loading: 1, upper crosshead; 2, tension load cell; 3, torque cell adapter No. 1; 4, torque cell; 5, torque cell adapter No. 2; 6, water-cooled grip; 7, specimen holder; 8, specimen; 9, induction coil; 10, ram More
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 18 Electrohydraulic testing machine modified for combined torsional and axial loading. 1, upper crosshead; 2, tension load cell; 3, torque cell adapter No. 1; 4, torque cell; 5, torque adapter No. 2; 6, water-cooled grip; 7, specimen holder; 8, specimen; 9, induction coil; 10, ram; 11 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... σ f / τ f where σ f is the failure strength of the material in tension along the axial direction and τ f is the failure strength of the material at the midplane. For isotropic materials, this limiting ratio is approximately 1.0, and the short beam test is not practical. For composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Engineering stress-strain curves from isothermal hot-tension tests are constructed from load-elongation measurements. The engineering, or nominal, stress is equal to the average axial stress and is obtained by dividing the instantaneous load by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen. Similarly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... correction for necking during tension testing of round-bar samples σ ¯ = σ x [ 1 + 2 R a ] ⋅ [ ln ( 1 + a 2 R ) ] where: • σ ¯ denotes the flow stress • σ X denotes the average axial stress (which is equal to applied load ÷ sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... or barreled. Severity of the bulged cylindrical surface increases with increasing friction and decreasing height-to-diameter ratio ( Ref 6 ). Tensile stresses associated with the bulging surface make the upset test a candidate for workability testing ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Circumferential tension and axial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... ( Ref 4 , 5 , 6 ). A similar technique, however, does not apply to the tension or torsion tests. Moreover, even in compression, such a technique works only if large axial permanent straining of the sample is involved, and even then, the sample with the stopper ring is repeatedly loaded elastically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... . The Whitworth or British Standard thread (with rounded thread root and crest) is superior in fatigue when compared to the American Standard thread form with flat crest and root ( Table 1 ) ( Ref 10 ). Axial load fatigue tests on “unified” screw threads for use in the USA, Canada, and Britain show a somewhat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... vessel for a 75 mm (3 in.) Hopkinson bar test system. t , thickness; D , diameter; OD, outside diameter Dynamic Confinement The classical Hopkinson Bar can be modified to allow dynamic triaxial compressive loading of a sample. This technique simultaneously loads the sample in the axial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... compression test strain rate THE UTILITY OF THE COMPRESSION TEST in workability studies is shown in other articles in this Volume. A cylindrical specimen is relatively easy to prepare, and loading in compression simplifies the design of grips. Moreover, the absence of necking, as occurs in a tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to deformation levels equivalent to a true axial strain of 5 or more in tension, or a reduction of 90 to 95% in compression. Another attractive feature of the torsion test is that a constant true strain rate can be imposed on any given annular region of the specimen by simply twisting one end relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and tension-compression can be loaded independently in phase or out of phase. Figure 5 shows a biaxial fatigue testing machine of this type. Figure 6 shows the extensometer used to measure axial and angular displacement. A cylindrical specimen ( Fig. 7 ) is the standard geometry for this type of testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... data generated for P91 steel at 600 °C (1100 °F) using tubular specimens (outside diam 38 × 2 mm, thinner than the example tube in other figures) under internal pressure and axial end load with different ratios of hoop and axial stress. It should be noted that all the tests were started with the same...