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axial deformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... homogeneous effective medium (HEM). The article analyzes the anisotropy predictions of rolled face-centered-cubic and body centered-cubic sheets and presents simulations of the axial deformation of hexagonal-close-packed zirconium. The applications of polycrystal constitutive models to the simulation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tension test assuming uniform deformation and planar isotropy (R 0 ° = R 90° = R 45 ° = R)  Axial true stress σ 1  Axial true strain ε 1  Effective stress ( σ ¯ ) σ ¯   = 3 ( 1 + R ) 2 ( 2 + R ) σ 1  Effective strain ( ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... yy ) 2 +2 L σ yz 2 +2Mσ zx 2 +2 N σ xy 2 = 1 Uniaxial sheet tension test assuming uniform deformation and planar isotropy (R 0 ° = R 90° = R 45 ° = R)  Axial true stress σ 1  Axial true strain ε 1  Effective stress ( σ ¯ ) σ ¯   = 3 ( 1 + R...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... opposite effect. It was further recognized that secondary tensile stresses occur in generally compressive processes, such as the hoop stress due to barreling in axial compression of a cylinder. However, plasticity theory was in its infancy and not yet available in convenient form for everyday practitioners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... involves a displacement-based approach. The initial height of the slab is assumed to be h 0 . After that, height increases due to the axial ( z ) strain increment, Δε z , volume constancy, leads to the following relation: (Eq 1) π ( R 2 − r 2 ) h 0 = π ( R 2 − r 1 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... permanent deformation, depending on whether or not the yield strength was exceeded. Long, slender, straight bars, tubes, or columns under axial compressive forces will buckle when the buckling load is exceeded. Buckling failure may also be encountered on the compressive sides of tubes, I-beams, channels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis. All have the same yield strength. Collapse due to instability under compressive stress, or buckling, may or may not be permanent deformation, depending on whether or not the yield strength was exceeded. Long, slender, straight bars, tubes, or columns under axial compressive forces will...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Heavily Cold Worked Metals , Deformation Processing and Structure , Krauss G. , Ed., ASM , 1982 , p 1 – 46 10.2172/6620317 5. Ashby M.F. , Sellars C.M. , et al. , Deformation Processing of Metals , Philos. Trans. R. Soc., London A , Vol 357 , 1999 , p 1441 – 1729 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the location of the initiation site. Source: Ref 25 The fracture surface orientation relative to the component geometry may also exclude some loading conditions (axial, bending, torsion, monotonic versus cyclic) as causative factors. For example, crack initiation is not expected along the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... component of interest in a failure investigation. Details on the mechanisms of deformation, brittle transgranular fracture, intergranular fracture, fatigue fracture, and environmentally affected fracture are also provided. brittle transgranular fracture creep fracture deformation ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... perpendicular to primary slip bands, a relationship attributable to the accumulation of primary dislocations of the same sign. Fig. 32 Double kink band produced in a single crystal of zinc by axial compression. As-polished and deformed. Original magnification 3×. Courtesy of J.J. Gilman Dislocation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and has to be performed outside the furnace. Universal joints are necessary to align the loading train. In any case, the maximum bending strain should not exceed 10% of the axial strain. One way to check the bending strain is to use strain gages on a specimen at the middle of the gage length. If the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... data. One of the most widely used, the Findlay correlation ( Ref 38 ), suggests that the total strain on any plastic structure under constant axial load can be predicted with a power law of the form: (Eq 21) ε = ε 0 ′ + ε T ′ t n where ε′ 0 is the stress-dependent, time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Compression tests are used for subscale testing and characterizing the mechanical behavior of anisotropic materials. This article discusses the characteristics of deformation during axial compression testing, including deformation modes, compressive properties, and compression-test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... combination of rollers and shaped mandrels. Roll forming can be performed axially or using a combination of radial and axial steps. Axial roll forming is shown schematically in Fig. 1 . A photograph of a typical mill that practices axial roll forming is shown in Fig. 2 . Some radial deformation of the...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., radial-axial horizontal rolling machines, four-mandrel mechanical table mills, three-mandrel table mills, and automatic radial-axial multiple-mandrel ring mills. The article provides a discussion on the process control technology and ancillary operations of ring rolling. It describes the methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Friction welding (FRW) can be divided into two major process variations: direct-drive or continuous-drive FRW and inertia-drive FRW. This article describes direct-drive FRW variables such as rotational speed, duration of rotation, and axial force and inertia-drive FRW variables such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... orientation, where the yield stresses and macroscopic stress versus strain relationships vary with direction. The general observation is that the torsional deformation of solid bars and tubes produces axial extension at ambient temperatures and contraction that is often preceded by an initial period of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... 61. Kalluri S. and Bonacuse P.J. , “Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequencing Effects,” ASTM STP 1387, Symposium on Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction , Kalluri S. and Bonacuse P.J. , Ed., American Society...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... triaxial experiments in materials characterization. Indeed, in axial compression, brittle materials such as rocks or ceramics fail by axial splitting, faulting, or plastic deformation (barreling), depending on the relative magnitude of the confining pressure that may accompany the axial compression ( Ref 3...