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axial compression

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... determination of the true axial compression stress when the test is used to measure the stress-strain curve (flow properties) of the material. However, as the article “Cold Upset Testing,” describes, this feature of the compression test can be used as a workability test by measuring the propensity for surface...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., radial-axial horizontal rolling machines, four-mandrel mechanical table mills, three-mandrel table mills, and automatic radial-axial multiple-mandrel ring mills. The article provides a discussion on the process control technology and ancillary operations of ring rolling. It describes the methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Typically, roll forming is used as an alternative to forging or ring rolling. Roll forming technology has been practiced in a variety of forms, including metal spinning, axial roll forming, and shear forming ( Ref 1 , Ref 2 , Ref 3 , Ref 4 , Ref 5 , Ref 6 , Ref 7 , Ref 8 , Ref 9 , Ref 10 , Ref 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... homogeneous effective medium (HEM). The article analyzes the anisotropy predictions of rolled face-centered-cubic and body centered-cubic sheets and presents simulations of the axial deformation of hexagonal-close-packed zirconium. The applications of polycrystal constitutive models to the simulation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... strain, ε 1 , to the axial compressive strain, ε 2 , in the specimen. Figure 19 shows that for frictionless (ideal) compression, the strain ratio is ε 1 /ε 2 = −1/2, and σ 1 = 0. The deformation in this case is referred to as homogeneous compression, because the only stress acting is an axial stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Circumferential tension and axial compression stresses at the equator of an upset cylinder The effects of the bulged surface in cylindrical compression tests can be enhanced by the use of shaped compression specimens. These specimens contain flanged or tapered sections at midheight, which increase the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the same, to a first approximation, as in the case of a compression specimen that did not barrel ( Ref 9 ). This result provides the theoretical justification for using the axial compressive strain as the effective strain in constructing the stress-strain curve. A simple power-curve relation can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... reduction ( R ), % R = [ ( h 0 − h ) h 0 ] × 100 Nominal (engineering) axial strain ( e ), % e = [ ( h − h 0 ) h 0 ] × 100 True axial strain (ε) ε = ln [ h h 0 ] True axial strain rate ( ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., so it was presumed that hydrostatic tension would have the opposite effect. It was further recognized that secondary tensile stresses occur in generally compressive processes, such as the hoop stress due to barreling in axial compression of a cylinder. However, plasticity theory was in its infancy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... torsion strain. The fixed end of the specimen is connected to a transducer that measures torque, which is converted to torsion stress. Sophisticated hot torsion machines use dual axis transducers on the fixed end to measure both torque and axial load. Changes in axial load occur during torsion if the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... it affects the DBTT The presence of a chemically aggressive environment (not discussed in this article) It is convenient to examine this behavior by consideration of a compact-tension-type specimen, that is, a component containing a single edge notch and subjected to combined axial and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... used. There are extensometers that measure both axial and transverse strain; these systems can be used for both tensile and compression tests. However, there does not seem to be a reliable extensometer to measure shear strain for the shear specimens, so strain gages must be used in this case. One of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... axial dimensions Roundness, defined by the curvature of corners Surface texture, defined by the irregularity of the surface between the corners Internal porosity with various structures All of these features or descriptions determine the apparent density, flowability, compressibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... porosity (dark areas). 340×. Fig. 657 : Outside diameter of failed filter tube at region containing an axial seam weld (at left). Note that only the surface of the nonporous type 316L filler metal was transformed to carbides. 340× (D.R. Diercks, Argonne National Laboratory) Torsional overload fracture...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... specimen under the same conditions as above was uncracked when it was removed from testing after an exposure of 8 1 2 years. Salt-fog tests on axial tension-test specimens of martensitic stainless steel showed that failure could be expected in a few days at stresses between 275 MPa (40 ksi) and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... typical backward extrusion die in a shrink ring assembly. The die is designed so that the anvil absorbs the axial load, and the load on the die is minimized. This is required to prevent cracking at the die corners. The length of anvil is designed to allow for elastic deflection under extrusion load. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... unnotched. As the size of the component subjected to reversed-bending fatigue increases, there is a decrease in fatigue strength up to approximately 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter. This effect is not thought to occur in axial fatigue in tension/compression. Fig. 14 Effect of cast section size on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... example, the cylindrical surface of a compression test undergoes various combinations of axial and circumferential strains, depending on the aspect ratio and the friction at the die contact surfaces ( Fig. 2 ). When no friction exists, the ratio of circumferential strain to axial strain is ε 1 /ε 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... compression to the outside diameter of a cylindrical preform, attached to a rotating mandrel. Compression is applied by a combination of axial and radial forces using a set of three or four rollers that are simultaneously moved along the length of the rotating preform, flowing the material plastically in both...