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Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... automobiles, polychlorinated biphenyls in pre-1980 appliances, chromium pigments in paints, and sodium azide in automobile airbags. Under current law, the recycler inherits responsibility for these wastes by processing the scrap. If the cost or liability incurred in the disposal of these wastes becomes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Tin is a soft, brilliant white, low-melting metal that is most widely known and characterized in the form of coating. This article discusses the primary and secondary production of tin and explains the uses of tin in coating, namely tinplating, electroplating, and hot dip coatings. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... air or nitrogen gas is directed against the emerging sheet, blowing off excessive zinc and cooling it. A coated galvanized sheet often is oiled or coated with a chromate conversion coating to inhibit white rusting and superficial corrosion during storage in transit. Application of a wax on galvanized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... process at least one time. Thus, rolled products represent a significant portion of the manufacturing economy and can be found in many sectors. Beams and columns used in buildings are rolled from steel. Railroad tracks and cars are made from rolled steel, and airplane bodies are made from rolled aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... test TIN, a soft, brilliant white, low-melting metal, is widely known and characterized in the form of coating for steel, that is, tinplate, and as a component of solder. In the molten state, it reacts with and readily wets most of the common metals and their alloys. Because of its low strength...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in phosphating solution. Large fabricated articles, such as refrigerator cabinets, are spray coated with solution while on conveyors. Automobile bodies are sprayed with or immersed in phosphating solution. Steel sheet and strip can be passed continuously through the phosphating solution or can be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... have a significant clay component in the batch. A clay-based ceramic body usually consists of one or more clays or clay minerals mixed with nonclay mineral powders such as fluxes (for example, feldspar) and fillers (for example, silica and alumina). Each of these constituents contributes to the plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., and thus is not protective. Corrosion products are the solid phases formed as a result of the interaction between the metal substrate and the environment. The white rust on zinc is a corrosion product. The physical characteristics of the zinc corrosion products play a more important role in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... automobile body parts to exhaust gases Affecting engine performance as little as possible Helping control undesirable exhaust emissions Having a service life that is acceptably long Having a reasonable cost, both as original equipment and as a replacement part In its basic form, the exhaust...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). Excess zinc can be removed from the workpiece by centrifuging or by wiping. The galvanized material is often quenched in a water bath to inhibit growth of the intermetallic alloy layers. A white stain, commonly called white rust or wet storage stain, may appear on zinc surfaces during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ordinarily considered to be self-evident, for example, damage of a car body in a collision or bending of a nail being driven into hard wood. However, the failure analyst is often faced with more subtle situations. For example, the immediate cause of distortion (bending) of an automobile-engine valve stem is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a durable and high-performance latex caulk might have an advantage in the late 1990s and thereafter. Polyvinyl acetate caulks have been available for a number of years. Typically a low-performance consumer product, they are based on the same technology used for white glues. These materials lack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 33 ). Fig. 5 Fretting wear damage in electrical connectors The transportation of goods by road or rail obviously means that these items are subjected to vibrations. This fact gives rise to the classic case of fretting in the bearings of automobiles being transported by rail from Detroit...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...% Al. Irons alloyed with aluminum in between these two ranges will be white iron as-cast and have no commercial importance. The aluminum greatly enhances oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures and also strongly stabilizes the ferrite phase to very high temperatures—up to and beyond 980 °C...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hypereutectic alloy, an aluminum-rich beta phase is observed rather than the primary zinc-rich eta phase. The primary beta phase that forms in ZA-8 decomposes below 280 °C (535 °F). The aluminum-rich phase is etched dark, while the eutectic etch is white, in contrast with the lower aluminum content alloys. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... surface preparation that causes poor adherence Fishscale imperfections, particularly of the delayed variety, caused by hydrogen evolution Carbon boiling in the enamel coating caused by surface carbides in the steel Steels for porcelain enameling with a single cover coat (white or colored) have...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... behavior on a microscopic scale. Body-centered-cubic metals, such as ferritic steels, and also some hexagonal-close-packed metals, undergo a ductile-to-brittle transition in their fracture behavior. Fractures that arise from this phenomenon have an especially insidious character because they can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... but rather for a process in which it was formerly used. Corroding lead is used in making pigments, lead oxides, and a wide variety of other lead chemicals. The required high purity is necessary to avoid problems, such as unwanted colors in white lead pigment, caused by impurities during and after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... largest category of this class of steel is flat-rolled products (sheet or strip) usually in the cold-rolled and annealed condition. The carbon content for these high-formability steels is very low, less than 0.10% C, with up to 0.4% Mn. Typical uses are in automobile body panels, tin plate, and wire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8