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automatic image analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article reviews the essential parts of the complex process of quantitative image analysis to assist automatic image analysis in laboratories. It describes the basic difference between the bias of classical manual stereological analysis and quantitative image analysis. The article...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 45 Image contrast (left) and corresponding black-and-white (b-w) detection thresholds (right) for automatic image analysis of dendrite arm size in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon cast alloys. (a) Good contrast for automatic image analysis of dendrite outlined with α-Al + Si eutectic. 200 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to the tablet. The features to be measured are traced, or the intercepts are marked with a grid superimposed over the image. Therefore, detection is much slower than with the automatic television devices. Once the features are detected, analysis is rapid, and most stereological measurements can be performed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the microstructural characteristics, automatic image analysis provides a means of quantitatively evaluating coating structures. This method is increasingly being used to detect and measure voids (porosity), oxides, unmelted spray particles, and interfacial contamination ( Ref 13 , 14 , 15 ). Coated specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by using automatic image analyzers. In this article, the basic rules of stereology are described with emphasis on how these procedures are applied manually, which should be understood before using image analysis for the measurements. Image analysis users must understand these principles before...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in conditions where the camera can be mounted either on a copystand or tripod and floodlighting can be used. In those situations, the aperture setting can go to F32 and higher without loss of image sharpness. For automatic cameras, the aperture priority setting is preferred in failure analysis, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article reviews the main theoretical and practical aspects of sequence normally followed in digital image-acquisition, processing, analysis, and output for material characterization. It discusses the main methods of digital imaging, image processing, and analysis, as applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as automatic focus and automatic exposure controls. The professional digital camera body allows aperture priority control, shutter priority control, program control, and manual control. The camera is typically set to JPEG fine images for failure analysis investigations. If ultimate image quality is required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... microscope backscatter image of exemplar crankshaft fracture Fig. 35 Computed tomography radiography inspection of exemplar fractured crankshaft Abstract Failure analysis is an investigative process in which the visual observations of features present on a failed component...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... filling velocity). These are just some examples. There are many such parameters, and high and low ts can be easily set to provide signals that summon attention or to sort parts automatically. Off-Line Automatic Statistical Process Control Analysis and Monitoring The process parameter data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and discontinuities that are present in a microstructure. It concludes with information on image analysis. brittle fracture deformation discontinuities ductile fracture fatigue fracture fractography image analysis light microscopy macroscopic analysis metallography microanalysis microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... structures in materials. Three-dimensional (3-D) microstructural characterization and analysis techniques have recently become much more common ( Ref 1 , Ref 2 , Ref 3 , Ref 4 ), and using the resultant 3-D experimental data as input for simulations, that is, employing image-based 3-D modeling ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes some of the common elemental composition analysis methods and explains the concept of referee and economy test methods in failure analysis. It discusses different types of microchemical analyses, including backscattered electron imaging, energy-dispersive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... with automatic image analyzers. The cited references provide good information on the evaluation of the techniques for specific applications. Acknowledgment The author wishes to express his appreciation to Kennametal Materials Analysis Department for their contributions to metallography used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...- shaded images. Other analyses such as finite element modeling and analysis (FEM/FEA) can also be done on surfaced models. Surface models do not allow any large degree of automation to be applied to engineering analysis and manufacturing applications. The definition is not complete enough (in the vast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... using optical and electron microscopy to examine individual particles. Figure 8 shows optical and scanning electron microscopy image analysis on a nickel-base alloy powder. Fig. 8 Particle size analysis of nickel-base alloy powder. (a) Optical microscopy. (b) Scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... be used to generate 3D images (serial sectioning, focused ion beam tomography, atom probe tomography, and x-ray microtomography) as well as techniques used to visualize 3D microstructures. Serial Sectioning The history of 3D analysis of microstructures via serial sectioning spans at least from 1918...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... for studying the fracture surface are based on the projected images (the picture obtained with the scanning electron microscope), stereoscopic viewing (using stereophotogrammetry), and sectioning (to generate profiles). The use of an automatic image analysis system with a digitizing tablet is extremely helpful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the parallax, depends on the tilt angle and the viewing distance, which are known, and the height difference (distance in z -direction) between the tilt axes and the corresponding point on the sample surface. Measuring the parallax manually or by automatic image analysis yields accurate data on the x - y - z...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... automatically by the graphics system. This information is output from the system in a format that requires no human intervention before being input to a computer for analysis. Should the analysis indicate that the geometry requires modification, this is done rapidly at the cathode ray tube (CRT) terminal...