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automated grinding

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and the equipment that influence the sample preparation procedure. It describes the hand and automated grinding methods. The article summarizes the rough and final polishing steps for both hand and automated techniques. Common artifacts that may be created during grinding and polishing steps of composite samples...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract After solidification and cooling, further processing and finishing of the castings are required. This article describes the general operations of shakeout, grinding, cleaning, and inspection of castings, with particular emphasis on automation technology. It illustrates...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Pitch, teeth/25 mm (1 in.) 2–6 Tooth set, mm (in.) 0.38–0.76 (0.015–0.030) Clearance angle 20–30° Hand hacksaws Pitch, teeth/25 mm (1 in.) 12–18 Clearance angle 20–30° Typical wheels and grinding conditions for magnesium alloys Table 6 Typical wheels and grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... felt-tip permanent marker. This sample with the corresponding section map was originally sent for nondestructive inspection. Fig. 7 Automated grinding/polishing head showing composite specimens mounted in the three rectangular openings. After the specimens are cut to shape, they can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of different particle size. This procedure is called the “traditional” method and is described in Table 1 , listing equivalent ANSI/CAMI and FEPA grit sizes for the SiC paper. For automated preparation using a multiple-specimen holder, the initial step is called planar grinding. This step must remove...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to hold. Also, placing a number of mounted specimens in a holder for semi- or fully-automated grinding and polishing is easier with standard mounts than for unmounted specimens. Mounted specimens are easier on the grinding/polishing surfaces than unmounted specimens. Cold-mounting materials require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... abrasive grinding can be minimized or eliminated. Then, a somewhat finer abrasive, which generates less damage, can be used for the first step (often called planar grinding with automated, multispecimen preparation systems). This procedure facilitates generation of a correctly prepared surface so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or complete sample destruction may occur. The same procedures described in the article, “Rough Grinding and Polishing,” are used to grind and polish the samples. This operation can be performed either by using automated grinding/polishing equipment or by hand grinding/polishing. The “first surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Automation allows for the repeatable scanning and mapping of tooth surfaces, as seen in Fig. 5 . Detection of Heat Treatment Presence Detection of Proper Microstructure Detection of Case Depth Typical gear applications include testing for grinding retemper burns on flanks. Grinding retemper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in.); cutting equipment, universal cutoff saw with an Al 2 O 3 thin wheel; mounting equipment, vacuum impregnation unit; mounting resin, fast-curing epoxy cold mount; holder, 32 mm (1 1 4 in.) plate; automated grinding-polishing machine Process step Disk or cloth Abrasive Grit or grain size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... control. This article describes the sample preparation techniques of composite materials. These techniques include mounting, rough grinding, and polishing. The preparation techniques of ultrathin sections are also summarized. The article explains the illumination methods used by reflected light microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and rotated 90° between grindings. The abrasive paper should be replaced often, because dull abrasive can cause light surface deformation and work hardening. Moderate pressure will minimize work hardening. Automated grinding equipment may also be used, and precautions should be taken to minimize surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...%Si-0.53%Mn-0.06%P-0.22%S-0.08%Ni-0.1%Cu-0.09%Cr-0.003%Bi) after grinding on P1000 SiC waterproof paper. The casting was annealed at 950 °C (1740 °F), held 10 h, furnace cooled to 720 °C (1330 °F), held 16 h, and air cooled. The arrows show the pulled-out graphite. As-polished. Original magnification...
Book Chapter

By K. Subramanian
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Lower rejections Lower in-process inventory Shorter grinding cycle New products Less labor intensive More automation Economic results (corporate) Lower total cost/part Better asset utilization More value-added products Factory automation Superabrasive Wheels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... be performed with automated polishing equipment or by hand, following the procedures described in the article, “Rough Grinding and Polishing.” Fig. 5 Polished boron fiber composite cross section. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective The polishing steps for preparing boron fiber composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... improves as the mount diameter increases, as long as the mount height is not greater than ~12.5 mm (0.5 in.). Platens for automated grinder/polishing machines are available in four sizes: 200-, 250-, 300-, or 350 mm (8-, 10-, 12-, or 14 in.) diameter, and grinding and polishing surfaces are also available...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... gears; others have interchangeable thread-generating elements, considering the infrequent pitch change needed in high-volume production. Many models can operate with single-rib or multirib wheels, and depending on the design, most or all phases of the grinding cycle are automated, with the variables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the specimen. As-polished. 100× Fig. 5 Temper graphite in malleable iron (Fe-2.9%C-1.5%Si-0.53%Mn-0.06%P-0.22%S-0.08%Ni-0.1%Cu-0.09%Cr-0.003%Bi) after grinding on P1000 SiC waterproof paper. The casting was annealed at 950 °C (1740 °F), held 10 h, furnace cooled to 720 °C (1330 °F), held 16 h...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., precipitate-free zones Procedure for fine grinding Table 9 Procedure for fine grinding Step Abrasive Gradation Lubricant Rotational speed, rev/min Force for specimen, N Time, min 1 SiC 500 H 2 O 200 50/30 1–5 2 SiC 1000 H 2 O 200 40/15 1 3 (a) SiC 2400 H 2 O 200...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... be substituted in step 1, as long as the abrasive size is similar (for example, a diamond grinding disc or a rigid grinding disc could be used). In step 1, remove the damage from sectioning and get all of the specimens in the holder to a common plane. In steps 2 to 4, charge the cloth first with diamond in paste...