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austenite-to-pearlite transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... untransformed volume. The article describes the austenite decomposition to ferrite and pearlite in spheroidal graphite irons and lamellar graphite irons. It provides a discussion on modeling austenite decomposition to ferrite and pearlite. austenite decomposition austenite-to-pearlite transformation...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 2 Austenite grains (transformed to pearlite) outlined by ferrite network in the as-cast structure. 40×. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 10 Transformation of austenite to a fully pearlitic structure illustrating pearlite growth rate as a function of time and alloying additions. Results from thermal analysis samples cooled at 0.73 K/s ( Ref 18 ) and 1.46 K/s ( Ref 42 ) on alloys containing various levels of arsenic, copper More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the liquid melt. The article describes the macrostructure and dendrite morphology of primary austenite. Eutectoid transformation in the solid state causes the transformation of austenite to pearlite and/or ferrite, producing the as-cast structure. The article discusses the observations of the graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... incorporation into the cementite. This process requires diffusion of carbon by one or more of three paths: through the austenite, through the ferrite, or along the interface. The lower the transformation temperature, the greater is the chemical energy driving the reaction, resulting in a finer pearlite size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of the latter changes, the transformation of austenite to pearlite accelerates with decreasing temperature. Figure 16 shows an isothermal transformation diagram for a eutectoid steel. The diagram shows the beginning and end of the eutectoid transformation of austenite to pearlite for specimens cooled from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... well below 727 °C (1340 °F). Figure 4 was produced by cooling the steel rapidly to a series of temperatures below A 1 , holding at those temperatures, and then following, as a function of time, the transformation of austenite to pearlite. An incubation time is required for the initiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...-depleted ferrite. On the other hand, martensitic or fully pearlitic starting microstructures contain the same overall solute content as the resulting austenite, so the transformation kinetics are less inhibited by the need for long-range solute transport. Fine eutectoid pearlite is a relatively simple case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... as pearlite at room temperature, rather than changing to a spheroidized condition. In fact, the true equilibrium form of carbon in an iron-carbon alloy is graphite, not cementite. However, the time required for transformation is so long that the iron-cementite structure is considered to be quasi-equilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... temperatures in the pearlite transformation region are maintained within very tight tolerances. Patenting Process Parameters Patenting of high-carbon steel wire traditionally has been conducted by first heating the wire to its austenitization temperature, approximately 870 to 920 °C (1600 to 1690 °F...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 20 Isothermal transformation (IT) diagram for a eutectoid composition (∼0.8% C) of carbon steel (0.81C-0.07Si-0.65Mn, wt%). The IT curves show the time for the start and finish of austenite (γ) transformation into a two-phase structure consisting of ferrite (α) and the cementite carbide More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 25 Effect of transformation temperature on extent of degenerate (nonlamellar) pearlite in a 0.25% C hypoeutectoid steel (0.23C-0.06Si-0.52Mn, wt%). (a) A structure with prominent nonlamellar features is observed in the steel austenitized at 900 °C (1650 °F) and isothermally transformed More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... element because, at levels of 3 to 5%, it is effective in suppressing the transformation of the austenite matrix to pearlite, and thus ensuring that a hard, martensitic structure (usually containing significant amounts of retained austenite) will develop on cooling in the mold. Chromium is included...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... for crushing and grinding. In these martensitic white irons, nickel is the primary alloying element because at levels of 3 to 5% it is effective in suppressing the transformation of the austenite matrix to pearlite, and thus ensuring that a hard, martensitic structure (usually containing significant amounts...
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Published: 01 December 2004
the austenite, and then water quenched (untransformed austenite forms martensite). (b) Upper bainite and pearlite in a specimen held 45 min at 538 °C (1000 °F) to produce complete transformation. Both specimens etched with aqueous 10% Na 2 S 2 O 5 , which colored the martensite light brown, the upper bainite More
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Published: 01 December 2004
at 220 °C/h (400 °F/h). 45 HRC. Structure is mostly bainite with fine pearlite at the prior-austenite grain boundaries. (c) Cooled at 28 °C/h (50 °F/h) to 620 °C (1150 °F), then water quenched. Austenite present at 620 °C (1150 °F) was transformed to martensite. Structure is mostly fine pearlite More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the lamellar pearlite microstructure as seen in Fig. 3 . In this structure the parent phase, austenite, decomposes into alternating layers of ferrite and cementite. It should be noted that pearlite is not the only morphology of eutectoid decomposition, as seen in the time-temperature-transformation (TTT...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 26 Effect of austenite grain size on pearlite in 0.4% C aluminum deoxidized steel (0.4C-0.19Si-0.73Mn, wt%) after austenitization and isothermal transformation at 695 °C (1280 °F). (a) Austenitized at 840 °C (1550 °F) ASTM grain No. 7. (b) Austenitized at 950 °C (1740 °F), ASTM grain size More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... °F) showing the presence of pearlite (arrow) caused by insufficient austemperability. Original magnification: 1000× Factors Affecting the Transformation of Austenite during Austempering of Free-Graphite Cast Irons Several factors affect the transformation rate of austenite during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005859
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... discusses the various aspects of steel heat treatment by induction processing, and concludes with a description of steel alloys for induction processing. austenitizing continuous cooling transformation diagram induction hardening iron-carbon system steel time temperature transformation diagram...